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Appel Lab

Dr. Bruce Appel’s long-term interests are to identify genes that are targets for therapies to treat developmental, degenerative, and cancerous diseases of the nervous system. He uses zebrafish as a model system to understand the mechanisms that produce and maintain neural precursors and that direct the formation of distinct neurons and glia.

Link to Appel Website

HudishLaura resized.jpg Laura Hudish, B.S., Graduate Student Assistant
Research Project: MicroRNA regulation of neural stem cells in development

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Christina Kearns, M.S., Senior Professional Research Assistant
Research Project: Regulation of myelination by the tumor suppressor gene Fbxw7
MathewsEmily resized.jpg
Emily Mathews, B.A., Graduate Student Assistant
Research Project: The role of cholesterol in regulating migration and differentiation of myelinating oligodendrocytes
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Andrew Ravanelli, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow
Research Project: Mechanisms that regulate neural stem cells in development and disease states


Snyder JL, Kearns CA, Appel B (2012) Fbxw7 regulates Notch to control specification of neural precursors for oligodendrocyte fate.  Neural Dev. May 3;7:15. PMID: 22554084

Simmons T, Appel B (2012) Mutation of pescadillo disrupts oligodendrocyte formation in zebrafish.
PLoS One. 7(2):e32317. PMID: 22384214
Jao LE, Appel B, Wente SR (2012) A zebrafish model of lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 reveals Gle1 function in spinal neural precursor survival and motor axon arborization.  Development. Apr;139(7):1316-26. PMID: 22357925
Zannino DA, Sagerström CG, Appel B (2012) olig2-Expressing hindbrain cells are required for migrating facial motor neurons.  Dev Dyn. Feb;241(2):315-26. PMID: 22275004
Tep C, Kim ML, Opincariu LI, Limpert AS, Chan JR, Appel B, Carter BD, Yoon SO (2012) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces polarized signaling of small GTPase (Rac1) protein at the onset of Schwann cell myelination through partitioning-defective 3 (Par3) protein.  J Biol Chem. Jan 6;287(2):1600-8. PMID: 22128191
Langworthy MM, Appel B. (2012) Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function.  Neural Dev.  Nov 20;7:37. PMID: 23167977
Takada N, Appel B (2011) swap70 promotes neural precursor cell cycle exit and oligodendrocyte formation.  Mol Cell Neurosci. Nov;48(3):225-35. PMID: 21875669

Takada N, Appel B (2010) Identification of genes expressed by zebrafish oligodendrocytes using a differential microarray screen.  Dev Dyn. Jul;239(7):2041-7. PMID:20549738
Takada N, Kucenas S, Appel B (2010) Sox10 is necessary for oligodendrocyte survival following axon wrapping.  Glia. Jun;58(8):996-1006. PMID: 20229602
Zhao X, He X, Han X, Yu Y, Ye F, Chen Y, Hoang T, Xu X, Mi QS, Xin M, Wang F, Appel B, Lu QR (2010) MicroRNA-mediated control of oligodendrocyte differentiation.  Neuron. Mar 11;65(5):612-26. PMID:20223198

Kucenas S, Wang WD, Knapik EW, Appel B (2009) A selective glial barrier at motor axon exit points prevents oligodendrocyte migration from the spinal cord.  J Neurosci. Dec 2;29(48):15187-94. PMID:
Roberts RK, Appel B (2009) Apical polarity protein PrkCi is necessary for maintenance of spinal cord precursors in zebrafish.  Dev Dyn. Jul;238(7):1638-48. PMID:19449304
Zannino DA, Appel B (2009) Olig2+ precursors produce abducens motor neurons and oligodendrocytes in the zebrafish hindbrain.  J Neurosci. Feb 25;29(8):2322-33. PMID:19244509
Kucenas, S., Takada, N., Park, H.C., Woodruff, E., Broadie, K. and Appel, B. (2008) CNS-derived glia ensheath peripheral nerves and mediate motor root development. Nature Neuroscience 11, 143-151.

Qu, X., Jia, H., Garrity, D.M., Tompkins, K., Batts, L., Appel., B., Zhong, T.P. and Baldwin, H.S. (2008) ndrg4 is required for normal myocyte proliferation during early cardiac development in zebrafish. Developmental Biology 317, 486-496.

McFarland, K.A., Topczewska, J.M., Weidinger, G., Dorsky, R.I. and Appel, B. (2008) Hh and Wnt signaling regulate formation of olig2+ neurons in the zebrafish cerebellum. Developmental Biology 318, 162-171.

Kim, H., Shin, J., Kim, S., Poling, J., Park, H.C. and Appel, B. (2008) Notch-regulated oligodendrocyte specification from radial glia in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos. Dev Dyn. Aug;237(8):2081-9.

Shin, J., Poling, J., Park, H.C. and Appel, B. (2007) Notch signaling regulates neural precursor allocation and binary neuronal fate decisions in zebrafish. Development 134, 1911-1920.

Park, H.C., Roberts, R., Shin, J. and Appel, B. (2007) An olig2 reporter gene marks oligodendroycte precursors in postembryonic spinal cord of zebrafish. Developmental Dynamics 236, 3402-3407.

Sarmah, B., Winfrey, V.P., Olson, G.E., Appel, B., Wente, S.R. (2007) A role for the inositol kinase Ipk1 in ciliary beating and length maintenance. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 104, 19843-19848.

Latimer, A.J. and Appel, B. (2006) Notch signaling regulates midline cell specification and proliferation in zebrafish. Developmental Biology 298, 392-402.

Kirby, B., Takada, N., Latimer, A.J., Shin, J. and Appel, B. (2006) In vivo imaging shows dynamic oligodendrocyte progenitor behavior during zebrafish development. Nature Neuroscience 9, 1506-1511.

Latimer, A.J., Shin, J. and Appel, B. (2005) her9 promotes floor plate development in zebrafish. Developmental Dynamics. 232, 1098-1104.

Sarmah, B., Latimer, A.J., Appel, B., and Wente, S.R. (2005) Zebrafish ipk1 is required for left-right asymmetry. Developmental Cell 9, 133-145.

Park, H.-C., Boyce, J., Shin, J. and Appel, B. (2005) Oligodendrocyte specification in zebrafish requires Notch-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor function. Journal of Neuroscience 25, 6836-6844.

Ng, A.N., de Jong-Curtain, T.A., Mawdsley, D.J., White, S.J., Shin, J., Appel, B., Dong, P.D., Stainier, D.Y. and Heath, J.K. (2005) Formation of the digestive system in zebrafish: III. Intestinal epithelium morphogenesis. Developmental Biology 286, 114-135.

Garg, R, Geng, C-D., Miller, J.L., Callens, S., Tang, X., Appel, B. and Xu, B. (2004) Molecular cloning and characterization of the catalytic domain of zebrafish homolog of the Ataxia-Telangiectasia-Mutated. Molecular Cancer Research 2, 348-353.

Park, H-C., Shin, J. and Appel, B. (2004) Spatial and temporal regulation of ventral spinal cord precursor specification by Hedgehog signaling. Development 131, 5959-5969.

Park, H.-C. and Appel, B. (2003) Delta-Notch signaling regulates oligodendrocyte specification. Development 130, 3747-3755.

Appel, B., Marasco, P., McClung, L.E. and Latimer, A.J. (2003) lunatic fringe regulates Delta-Notch induction of hypochord in zebrafish. Developmental Dynamics 228, 281-286.

Shin, J., Park, H.-C., Topczewska, J.M., Mawdsley, D.J. and Appel, B. (2003) Neural cell fate analysis in zebrafish using olig2 transgenics. Methods in Cell Science. 25, 7-14.

Latimer, A. J., Dong, X., Markov, Y. and Appel, B. (2002) Delta-Notch signaling
induces hypochord development in zebrafish. Development 129, 2555-2563.

Park, H.-C., Mehta, A., Richardson, J, and Appel, B. (2002) olig2 is required for zebrafish primary motor neuron and oligodendrocyte development. Developmental Biology 248, 356-368.

Appel, B., Givan, L., and Eisen, J.S. (2001) Delta-Notch mediated lateral inhibition regulates specification of zebrafish spinal neurons. BioMed Central Developmental Biology 1, 13.

Appel, B., Fritz, A., Westerfield, M., Grunwald, D.J., Eisen, J. S., and Riley, B. (1999) Delta-mediated specification of midline cell fates in zebrafish embryos. Current Biology 9, 247-256.

Appel, B. and Eisen, J. S. (1998) Regulation of neuronal specification in the zebrafish spinal cord by Delta function. Development 125, 371-380.

Moens, C. B., Yan, Y-L., Appel, B., Force, A.G., and Kimmel, C.B. (1996). valentino: a zebrafish gene required for normal hindbrain segmentation. Development 122, 3981-3990.

Appel, B., Korzh, V., Thor., S., Glasgow, E., Edlund, T, Dawid, I.B., and Eisen, J.S. (1995). Motoneuron fate specification revealed by patterned LIM homeobox gene expression in embryonic zebrafish.
Development 121, 4114-4125.

Appel, B., and Sakonju, S. (1993). Cell-type-specific mechanisms of transcriptional repression by the homeotic gene products UBX and ABD-A in Drosophila embryos. EMBO Journal 12, 1099-1109.