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Santoro Lab


Dr. Santoro has over 25 years’ experience as a funded clinical and epidemiological researcher. Her work has focused on the reproductive endocrinology of ovarian failure, menopause and perimenopause, and more recently on the effects of obesity on reproduction in women, through studies such as the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), the Women’s Health Initiative, the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, and the MSHIV Study, an epidemiological study of HIV infected, menopausal women in the Bronx. She is the author of over 200 scientific publications and is a co-editor of the Textbook of Perimenopausal Gynecology, Amenorrhea: A Clinician’s Guide, and Primary Ovarian Insufficiency.

Santoro Lab Group Resized.jpg

Anahit Malkhasyan, BS, Research Assistant / Clinical Coordinator
Katherine Kuhn, MS, Research Assistant / Clinical Coordinator
Sara Babcock​, MD, Clinical Fellow
Andy Bradford, PhD, Collaborator
Nanette Santoro, MD, Principal Investigator
Kelsey Jones, Research Assistant
Alex Polotsky, MD, MSc, Principal Investigator
Natalie Hohos, Post-doctoral Fellow



  1. Delamater L, Santoro N. Management of the Perimenopause. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep;61(3):419-432. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000389. PMID:29952797
  2. Diamond MP, Eisenberg E, Huang H, Coutifaris C, Legro RS, Hansen KR, Steiner AZ, Cedars M, Barnhart K, Ziolek T, Thomas TR, Maurer K, Krawetz SA, Wild RA, Trussell JC, Santoro N, Zhang H. The efficiency of single institutional review board review in National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network-initiated clinical trials. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Clin Trials. 2018 Oct 24:1740774518807888. doi: 10.1177/1740774518807888.
  3. Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Stephenson M, Robins J, Hansen KR, Youssef WA, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H; NICHD Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Optimal treatment for women with a persisting pregnancy of unknown location, a randomized controlled trial: The ACT-or-NOT trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Oct;73:145-151. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2018.09.009. Epub 2018 Sep 20. PMID:30243810
  4. Galderisi A, Giannini C, Weiss R, Kim G, Shabanova V, Santoro N, Pierpont B, Savoye M, Caprio S. Trajectories of changes in glucose tolerance in a multiethnic cohort of obese youths: an observational prospective analysis. Lancet Child Adolesc Health.​ 2018 Oct;2(10):726-735. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30235-9. Epub 2018 Aug 24. PMID:30236381
  5. Gupta MB, Abu Shehab M, Nygard K, Biggar K, Singal SS, Santoro N, Powell TL, Jansson T. IUGR is associated with marked hyperphosphorylation of decidual and maternal plasma IGFBP-1.​ J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 16. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00820. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30124960
  6. Kent J, Dodson WC, Kunselman A, Pauli J, Stone A, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Rosen RM, Hansen KR, Robinson RD, Baker V, Usadi R, Santoro N, Zhang H, Eisenberg E, Legro RS; Gestational Weight Gain in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Controlled Study. Reproductive Medicine Network. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Nov 1;103(11):4315-4323. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-02764. PMID:30085187
  7. Barrett ES, Vitek W, Mbowe O, Thurston SW, Legro RS, Alvero R, Baker V, Bates GW, Casson P, Coutifaris C, Eisenberg E, Hansen K, Krawetz S, Robinson R, Rosen M, Usadi R, Zhang H, Santoro N, Diamond M. Allostatic load, a measure of chronic physiological stress, is associated with pregnancy outcomes, but not fertility, among women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod. 2018 Sep 1;33(9):1757-1766. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dey261. PMID:30085177
  8. Butts SF, Seifer DB, Koelper N, Senapati S, Sammel MD, Hoofnagle AN, Kelly A, Krawetz SA, Santoro N, Zhang H, Diamond MP, Legro RS; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Reproductive Medicine Network. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Poor Ovarian Stimulation Outcome in PCOS but not Unexplained Infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 3. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00750. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30085176
  9. Delamater L, Santoro N. Management of the Perimenopause. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep;61(3):419-432. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000389. PMID:29952797
  10. Thurston RC, Bhasin S, Chang Y, Barinas-Mitchell E, Matthews KA, Jasuja R, Santoro N. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):3070-3077. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00579. Reproductive Hormones and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife Women. PMID:29788255
  11. Evans-Hoeker EA, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Alvero R, Coutifaris C, Casson PR, Christman GM, Hansen KR, Zhang H, Santoro N, Steiner AZ; Reproductive Medicine Network. Major depression, antidepressant use, and male and female fertility. Fertil Steril. 2018 May;109(5):879-887. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.01.029. PMID:29778387
  12. Allshouse AA, Santoro N, Green R, Wong JYY, Upchurch DM, Neal-Perry G, Thurston RC, Derby CA. Religiosity and faith in relation to time to metabolic syndrome for Hispanic women in a multiethnic cohort of women-Findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Maturitas. 2018 Jun;112:18-23. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.03.008. Epub 2018 Mar 13. PMID:29704912
  13. Greenwood EA, Cedars MI, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Kao CN, Haisenleder DJ, Diamond MP, Huddleston HG; National Institutes of Health/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Antimüllerian hormone levels and antral follicle counts are not reduced compared with community controls in patients with rigorously defined unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril. 2017 Dec;108(6):1070-1077. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.09.015. PMID:29202959
  14. Santoro N, Allshouse AA, Neal-Perry G, Pal L, Lobo RA, Naftolin F, Black DM, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Dowling NM, Dunn M, Gleason CE, Hodis HN, Isaac B, Magnani M, Manson JE, Miller VM, Taylor HS, Wharton W, Wolff E, Zepeda V, Harman SM. Longitudinal changes in menopausal symptoms comparing women randomized to low-dose oral conjugated estrogens or transdermal estradiol plus micronized progesterone versus placebo. Menopause. 2017;24(3):238-246. doi:10.1097/gme.0000000000000756.
  15. Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Ager J, Huang H, Hansen KR, Baker V, Usadi R, Seungdamrong A, Bates GW, Rosen RM, Haisonleder D, Krawetz SA, Barnhart K, Trussell JC, Jin Y, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Assessment of multiple intrauterine gestations from ovarian stimulation (AMIGOS) trial: baseline characteristics. Fertility and Sterility. 2015; 103(4):962-973. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.12.130.
  16. Kuang H, Jin S, Hansen KR, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Huang H, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi S, Baker V, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Legro RS, Zhang H. Identification and replication of prediction models for ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction. 2015; 30(9):2222-33. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dev182.
  17. Pinkerton JV, Santoro N. Compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: identifying use trends and knowledge gaps among US women. Menopause. 2015; 22(9):926-36. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000420.
  18. Kuang H, Jin S, Thomas T, Engmann L, Hansen KR, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Zhang H. Predictors of participant retention in infertility treatment trials. Fertility and Sterility. 2015; 104(5):1236-43. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.08.001
  19. Steiner AZ, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Barnhart KT, Casson PR, Christman GM, Alvero R, Hansen KR, Geisler WM, Thomas T, Santoro N, Zhang H, Eisenberg E. Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin G3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes. Fertility and Sterility. 2015;104(6):1522-1526. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.08.022.
  20. Hansen KR, He AL, Styer AK, Wild RA, Butts S, Engmann L, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Predictors of pregnancy and live-birth in couples with unexplained infertility after ovarian stimulation–intrauterine insemination. Fertility and Sterility. 2016;105(6):1575-1583. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.02.020.
  21. Mumford SL, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Steiner AZ, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Christman GM, Casson PR, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Cedars MI.. Baseline AMH Level Associated With Ovulation Following Ovulation Induction in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2016;101(9):3288-3296. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-1340.
  22. Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Trussell JC, Craig LB, Gracia C, Huang H, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman G, Coutifaris C, Diamond M, Jin S, Legro RS, Robinson RD, Schlaff WD, Zhang H. Fertility-related quality of life from two RCT cohorts with infertility: unexplained infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction. 2016;31(10):2268-2279. doi:10.1093/humrep/dew175.
  23. Chosich J, Bradford AP, Allshouse AA, Reusch JEB, Santoro N, Schauer IE. Acute recapitulation of the hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia characteristic of metabolic syndrome suppresses gonadotropins. Obesity. 2017;25(3):553-560. doi:10.1002/oby.21754.​​

R01 HD087314 (Santoro)          05/04/2016-02/29/2020
NIH
Reprometabolic Syndrome Mediates Subfertility in Obesity

The proposed study seeks to determine whether increased insulin and free fatty acid exposure can reproduce the reproductive hormonal abnormalities that we have previously described in association with obesity in women.


K12 HD001271 (Santoro)          08/01/2015-07/31/2020
NIH
Colorado WRHR Career Development Center 

This is a research training program for OB/GYN junior faculty.


K12 HD057022 (Regenstein/Santoro MPI)          08/01/2017-07/31/2022
NIH/NIHCD
Building Interdisciplinary Careers in Women’s Health

This is a K-12 training grant for MD and PhD junior faculty to foster interdisciplinary careers in women’s health.


R25 HD075737 (Santoro)          04/15/2013-04/30/2023
NIH
The Clinical Research/Reproductive Scientist Training Program (CREST)

The proposed study seeks to expand a highly successful training program in reproductive medicine- the Clinical Research/Reproductive Scientists Training Program (CREST)- by formalizing a second year of training in reproductive epidemiology and secondary data analyses of existing multi-center, clinical trial databases in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility and Andrology.


U01 AG12535 (C Derby)          05/01/2014-04/30/2019
NIH
Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation: NJ Site

The major goals of this proposal are to conduct a cross sectional survey of 15,000 women nationally, and to recruit from this survey sample a cohort of 450 women who will be followed longitudinally for psychosocial, gynecological, hormonal, cardiovascular and other health outcomes as they traverse the menopausal transition.

Role: Co-I


R43 AG056209 (Duke)          01/15/2018-12/31/2018 (automatic no cost extension 1/1/2019)
NIH, Menogenix, Inc.
Effect of Repeated Administration of G-CSF on Hot Flashes and Other Vasomotor Symptoms of Menopause.

The purpose of this study is to conduct a Phase 1b trial of G-CSF as a non-hormonal treatment for vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women.

Role: Co-I

2018: President Nominee, Society for Reproductive Investigation
2016: Endocrine Society Outstanding Mentor Award
2015: Society for Women’s Health Research Award for Outstanding Achievement in Women’s Health Research
2006: Mentor of the Year, Albert Einstein College of Medicine’s Clinical Research Training Program
2005: North American Menopause Society Award for Research in the Perimenopause
5280 Magazine, Castle Connelly, US News & World Report, and New York, New Jersey and Westchester Magazine: Top Doctor

Media presentations in multiple venues: Endocrine News, The New York Times, Newsweek Magazine, Cosmopolitan, among others.