By Tonia Twichell
(December 2017) When two bombs exploded at the Boston Marathon in 2013, bystanders
jumped in to help, improvising tourniquets, bandaging wounds and
driving the wounded to hospitals.
Three people were killed and 264
injured, but U.S. Air Force Col. Vikhyat Bebarta, MD, CU professor of
emergency medicine, imagines an even darker scenario “if that bomb had
had chemicals instead of nails and screws.”
Bystanders entering the “hot zone” could be exposed to contaminants and would be helpless to render aid in any case, he said.
are antidotes for a lot of these chemicals but they involve using an
IV,” he said. “No taxi cab driver knows how to put in an IV. No shop
owner knows how to do ventilation.”
Without immediate treatment,
victims would die or suffer long-term health consequences because most
chemical agents bind tissue rapidly.
As terrorism spreads around
the world, governments are searching for an antidote to chemical
exposure that is simple to use and cheap to manufacture, and Bebarta is
on the forefront of that effort.
A Growing Danger
Bebarta, who served his residency at University
of Colorado Hospital and Denver Health Medical Center, and completed a
fellowship in toxicology at Rocky Mountain Poison & Drug Center,
first saw chemical weapon casualties while stationed in Iraq in 2006. An
explosion injured dozens of Iraqi civilians and U.S troops, and they
arrived at his hospital with burns and breathing problems.
“Al Qaeda and other groups were blowing up chlorine trucks and tanks,” he said. “Some patients were very sick.”
his deployments Bebarta also saw mustard gas injuries from munitions
left over from the 1980s, though most of those chemicals were too old to
ignite and generally just caused burns, often to the terrorists
Treating victims of chemical exposure became commonplace for Bebarta, who estimates he’s seen hundreds of victims in his four deployments, but the chaos and fear they inspired never became routine.
war injuries are very difficult to treat … but chemical weapons are
psychologically challenging,” said Bebarta, an Air Force Academy
graduate, who has trained doctors in chemical exposure treatment in
Jordan, Afghanistan and Iraq. “Most of these folks are prepared for a
gunshot wound or explosion. But they are not prepared for chemicals
because they don’t know what the long-term effects are. They don’t know
what the short-term effects are. They don’t know what next four hours
will look like.”
Dealing with victims of chemical agents is
difficult for hospital staff, partly because they don’t know if they are
in danger of contamination, and also because of the large number of
“I can give a world of care to one or two patients,
but when you have 40, 50 or even 80 people in the field or in a hospital
room that are exposed after drinking or inhaling cyanide, you can’t
treat them as quickly as you should. And you have to treat chemicals
right away. You can’t wait.”
Bebarta fears that the number of
attacks will continue to increase and spread to civilian populations
because many deadly chemicals are readily available, and information on
deploying them is easy to access.
“The risk is only going to
grow now. Whether it’s in Somalia, the Philippines, Korea or some guy
in South Dakota or Denver, they now have that technology and
understanding because it’s being disseminated quickly by the internet.
They know they can use chemicals in ways that would bring terror and
media attention, cause some deaths, and scare and injure a lot of
people. It’s not going to settle down. Because we haven’t solved the
problem of getting rid of those folks, it’s going to spread.”
Fast-Track to a Solution
member of the Air Force Reserve appointed to the Office of Chief
Scientist of the 59th Medical Wing, the Department of Defense’s (DoD)
largest ambulatory surgical care facility, and serving on several Joint
DoD research steering committees, Bebarta has been working on
development of an antidote that could be administered in the field.
an emergency, even experts like Bebarta often need to treat without the
certainty of a diagnosis because the tests results needed to verify the
agent can take hours.
An antidote would have to reflect that reality by counteracting multiple chemical agents.
treat empirically and make some guesses. Sometimes we can
differentiate a little because of the type of burns, but for most part
we don’t know.”
Chemical weapons fall into two categories: toxic
industrial chemicals (TICs) like cyanide, chlorine and hydrogen sulfide
which are common and usually found in large quantities, and manufactured
warfare agents that include nerve agents like sarin and mustard gas.
think industrial chemicals are where it’s at, because they’re
available, they’re toxic, they’re easily released and they’re cheap.
Chemical warfare agents traditionally have been used in Syria, but it’s
much harder to get access to them. So the average terrorist or
antigovernment person will probably use TICs.”
Some chemicals like
cyanide, sulfide and sarin gas are more susceptible to an antidote
development than chlorine, which poses more of a challenge.
envisions an antidote that can be ingested, inhaled or injected into
muscle to simplify delivery. He would like to see it packaged alongside automated external defibrillators, which can be found in any public building or gathering place in the United States.
there’s an explosion down the street at 7-Eleven. We want drugs that
can be administered by the Arapahoe County sheriff deputy or Denver
paramedic or Aurora fireman. Then, in the hospital, we can do follow up
Using DoD and National Institutes of Health grants,
Bebarta’s team at the School of Medicine is working with scientists
around the country as well as in Europe and Israel to develop the drug
cobinamide to treat chemical reactions. The researchers are moving “from
‘bench to bedside to bystander,’ covering the whole path from ‘molecule
Bebarta and his colleagues have met with the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration, and he expects the approval process to
begin within approximately two years “if everything continues to go as quickly it is
now.” He feels some self-imposed pressure to move fast.
not just an academic endeavor for me. I could research anything. For
me, it’s personal. When I’m on active duty, these are the guys I take
care of. I do feel responsible for them. Getting these solutions into
practice is very important. My buddies are the ones in Syria, Somalia
and Iraq right now. I know what they are going through. I feel obligated
to figure out a solution. It’s not hypothetical. These are real
soldiers and airmen I want to get the antidote to. These are my friends
who will be getting exposed. The same goes for my colleagues, neighbors,
community members and friends in Denver and Colorado.”