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Longitudinal High School Study

Longitudinal High School Study 

Southeastern U.S. Tribal Nation

1987 -1992

Spero M. Manson, Ph.D. 

Spero M. Manson, Ph.D.; Candace M. Fleming, Ph.D.



This study had 2 goals:

  1. to establish the prevalence and incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse within the boarding school setting;
  2. to shed light on the relative contribution of phenomena such as stressful life events, coping strategies, social support, mastery, and self-concept.



A self-report questionnaire was administered to the entire student body of a boarding school, located in the Southeastern U.S., twice during each of 4 academic years.   Unique identifiers enable the study team to link data specific to each respondent across all waves of data collection. Similar, if not identical, scales were used on each questionnaire.



Roughly 150 students completed the questionnaire at each administration across the 4 years. In all, 52% of the respondents were female; the age range for the respondents was 12 to 20 years with 74% of them between 14 and 16 years of age.   The entire student body had some tribal affiliation.


  1. SIQ-Jr.
  2. CES-D.
  3. Self-Esteem.
  4. Coping.
  5. Stressful Life Events.
  6. Hassles.
  7. IDD.
  8. Social Support.
  9. Anxiety.
  10. Alcohol/Drug Use.



Ackerson, L.M., Dick, R. W., Manson, S. M., & Barón, A.E. (1990). Depression among American Indian adolescents: Psychometric characteristics of the Inventory to Diagnose Depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(4), 601-607.

Bechtold, D. W., & Manson, S. M. (1997). Native American children and adolescents. In J. Noshiptz (Ed.), Handbook of child and adolescent psychiatry (pp. 557-573). New York, NY: Basic Books.

Bechtold, D. W., Manson, S. M., & Shore, J. H. (1994). Psychosocial consequences of stress among Native American adolescents. In R. Lieberman & J. Yaeger (Eds.), Stress and psychiatry (pp. 101-116). New York, NY: Plenum Publishing Co.

Dick, R.W., Manson, S.M., and Beals, J. (1993).   Alcohol use among male and female Native American adolescents: Patterns and correlates of student drinking in a boarding school.   Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 54, 172-177.

Dick, R.W., Beals, J., Keane, E.M., and Manson, S.M. (1994).  Factorial structure of the CES-D among American Indian adolescents.   Journal of Adolescence, 17, 73-79.

Keane, E. M., Dick, R. W., Bechtold, D. W., & Manson, S. M. (1996). Predictive and concurrent validity of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire among American Indian adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 735-747.

King, J., Beals, J., Manson, S. M., & Trimble, J. E. (1992). A structural equation model of factors related to substance use among American Indian adolescents. Drugs and Society, 6(3/4), 253-268.

Manson, S.M., Ackerson, L.M., Dick, R.W., Baron, A.E., and Fleming, C.M. (1990). Depressive symptoms among American Indian adolescents: Psychometric characteristics of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).   Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2(3), 231-237.

Manson, S. M., Beals, J., Dick, R.W., and Duclos, C.W. (1989).   "Risk factors for suicide among Indian adolescents at a boarding school." Public Health Reports, 104(6): 609-614.

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