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Professional Curriculum

Ability-Based Outcomes (the Colorado 14) Expected of Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates

  1. Collect appropriate patient data to make an assessment
    • Identify and collect information from health records that will influence optimal pharmacotherapy
    • Obtain a history from patient or caretaker (e.g. chief complaint, medical, medication management, financial, social, cultural, review of systems)
    • Conduct appropriate physical assessment relevant to pharmacy practice
  2. Conduct a patient-centered assessment
    • Recognize common symptoms/complaints
    • Identify drug-related problems
    • Determine disease severity, chronic disease control and therapeutic goals
    • Prioritize identified problems in collaboration with the patient and other health care providers
  3. Design, implement, evaluate and adjust a patient-centered pharmacy care plan
    • Critically evaluate treatment options using sound scientific principles (including basic and clinical sciences) and evidence
    • Consider patient specific characteristics including health literacy, cultural diversity, and behavioral psychosocial issues
    • Select appropriate drug therapy (e.g. drug, dose, route, frequency)
    • Select appropriate non-drug therapy
    • Develop a monitoring plan
    • Conduct patient education including verification of patient understanding of treatment plan
    • Implement interventions to improve adherence
    • Refer to other providers as appropriate
  4. Process medication related orders
    • Perform calculations required to compound, dispense, and administer medications
    • Dispense medications in a manner that promotes safe, accurate and effective use
    • Prepare and compound extemporaneous preparations
    • Carry out duties in accordance with legal, ethical, social, economic and professional guidelines
  5. Participate in population-based care
    • Analyze epidemiologic, pharmacoeconomic, and pharmacogenomic data, medication use review, and risk management strategies
    • Apply, or participate in the development or implementation of population-specific, evidence-based disease management programs and protocols.
  6. Manage aspects of pharmacy operations using appropriate data and procedures
    • Comply with laws and regulations
    • Apply ethical and professional principles
    • Assess and improve medication distribution and control systems
    • Employ effective personnel management principles
    • Use sound principles of fiscal resource management
  7. Participate in the management of a successful patient-centered practice
    • Describe a plan for the establishment, marketing, and compensation for medication therapy management and patient care services
    • Use sound principles that support efficient and cost-effective utilization of resources (e.g., human, physical, medical, informational, and technological)
  8. Retrieve, evaluate, and utilize basic science, professional, and lay information in a critical and scientific manner that enhances the practice of pharmacy
    • Identify and select appropriate drug information resources
    • Demonstrate expertise in informatics by acquiring, storing, analyzing, using, and disseminating medication-related data and knowledge in a manner that optimizes patient care and health outcomes
    • Evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacoeconomic implications of medications, medical devices, and patient care services
  9. Manage medication use systems to optimize patient and population outcomes
    • Predict, identify, evaluate and report adverse drug reactions and medication errors and recommend actions to minimize drug misadventure
    • Participate in the process of conducting medication use evaluations
    • Describe, evaluate and navigate a health system's formulary process
    • Compile and evaluate literature necessary to review a class of medications and make formulary recommendations that influence pharmacy benefits
    • Participate in the development of policies related to medication use and health systems
  10. Develop and participate in health promotion, disease prevention, and public health policy
    • Participate in immunization provision programs
    • Engage in public education programs (e.g. health fairs, screenings, brown bags, disease prevention)
    • Collaborate with other organizations (e.g. governmental organizations, health organizations, business groups) to develop and promote public health policy
  11. Exhibit the highest standards of professional and ethical behavior in pharmacy practice (e.g. honesty, integrity, tolerance, confidentiality, care and compassion, respect for others, responsibility)
    • Develop and maintain professional relationships with patients
    • Develop and maintain professional relationships with other health care providers
    • Make and defend rational, ethical decisions within the context of professional and personal values
    • Respect and protect patient privacy
  12. Maintain professional competency and professional stewardship
    • Identify and analyze emerging issues (including basic and clinical scientific advances), products, and services to improve pharmacy practice and public health
    • Self-assess learning needs and design, implement, and evaluate strategies to promote intellectual growth and continued professional competence
    • Advance oneself and the profession through leadership, service activities, and participation in professional organizations
  13. Apply basic and clinical scientific principles and methods to identify and solve problems
    • Formulate a relevant and significant question or hypothesis
    • Develop a strategy or method to answer the question or hypothesis
    • Analyze available information to answer the question or reformulate hypothesis
    • Provide evidence-based solutions that most effectively answer the question or hypothesis
  14. Communicate effectively using multiple strategies to improve health outcomes
    • Communicate and collaborate with patients, caregivers, and health care professionals to engender an intraprofessional and interprofessional approach to patient-centered and population-centered care
    • Provide accurate and succinct verbal or written information that is appropriate for the target audience (e.g. patient, caregiver or other health care professional).
    • Identify factors (e.g. low health literacy, cultural) that influence effective communication and modify communication strategies to optimize health care interactions
    • Display verbal and non-verbal mannerisms that promote empathetic, respectful and compassionate communication
    • Appropriately document patient-specific information in health records
    • Explain health-system related issues (e.g. pharmacy benefits, formularies) to relevant stakeholders (e.g. patients, caregivers and health care providers)