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Nanette Santoro, MD

E. Stewart Taylor Endowed Chair, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Professor, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology
Secondary Appointment, Division of Reproductive Sciences


MD (1979), Albany Medical College/RPI, Albany, NY


Mail Stop B198-1, A01, Room 4010
Phone: (303) 724 2041
Fax: (303) 724 2061

Santor​o Lab

Research Interests:

Dr. Santoro’s current research involves treatment of menopausal symptoms in women, understanding the mechanisms by which obesity causes relative infertility in women, and training of Reproductive Endocrinologists in clinical research.  Her laboratory has specialized in the development and measurement of reproductive hormones using state-of-the-art methodologies.  She developed techniques to perform field studies that allow for daily hormone assessments without the inconvenience of blood drawing by using urine sampling. She is also the Chair of the Steering Committee for the Reproductive Medicine Network, an NIH funded clinical trails network devoted to the study of problems in human reproduction.


Diamond MP, Eisenberg E, Huang H, Coutifaris C, Legro RS, Hansen KR, Steiner AZ, Cedars M, Barnhart K, Ziolek T, Thomas TR, Maurer K, Krawetz SA, Wild RA, Trussell JC, Santoro N, Zhang H. The efficiency of single institutional review board review in National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network-initiated clinical trials. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Clin Trials. 2018 Oct 24:1740774518807888. doi: 10.1177/1740774518807888.

Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Stephenson M, Robins J, Hansen KR, Youssef WA, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H; NICHD Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Optimal treatment for women with a persisting pregnancy of unknown location, a randomized controlled trial: The ACT-or-NOT trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Oct;73:145-151. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2018.09.009. Epub 2018 Sep 20. PMID:30243810

Galderisi A, Giannini C, Weiss R, Kim G, Shabanova V, Santoro N, Pierpont B, Savoye M, Caprio S. Trajectories of changes in glucose tolerance in a multiethnic cohort of obese youths: an observational prospective analysis. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018 Oct;2(10):726-735. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30235-9. Epub 2018 Aug 24. PMID:30236381

Gupta MB, Abu Shehab M, Nygard K, Biggar K, Singal SS, Santoro N, Powell TL, Jansson T. IUGR is associated with marked hyperphosphorylation of decidual and maternal plasma IGFBP-1.​ J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 16. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00820. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30124960

Kent J, Dodson WC, Kunselman A, Pauli J, Stone A, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Rosen RM, Hansen KR, Robinson RD, Baker V, Usadi R, Santoro N, Zhang H, Eisenberg E, Legro RS; Gestational Weight Gain in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Controlled Study. Reproductive Medicine Network. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Nov 1;103(11):4315-4323. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-02764. PMID:30085187

Barrett ES, Vitek W, Mbowe O, Thurston SW, Legro RS, Alvero R, Baker V, Bates GW, Casson P, Coutifaris C, Eisenberg E, Hansen K, Krawetz S, Robinson R, Rosen M, Usadi R, Zhang H, Santoro N, Diamond M. Allostatic load, a measure of chronic physiological stress, is associated with pregnancy outcomes, but not fertility, among women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod. 2018 Sep 1;33(9):1757-1766. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dey261. PMID:30085177

Butts SF, Seifer DB, Koelper N, Senapati S, Sammel MD, Hoofnagle AN, Kelly A, Krawetz SA, Santoro N, Zhang H, Diamond MP, Legro RS; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Reproductive Medicine Network. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Poor Ovarian Stimulation Outcome in PCOS but not Unexplained Infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 3. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00750. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30085176

Delamater L, Santoro N. Management of the Perimenopause. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep;61(3):419-432. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000389. PMID:29952797

Thurston RC, Bhasin S, Chang Y, Barinas-Mitchell E, Matthews KA, Jasuja R, Santoro NReproductive Hormones and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):3070-3077. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00579. PMID:29788255

Evans-Hoeker EA, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Alvero R, Coutifaris C, Casson PR, Christman GM, Hansen KR, Zhang H, Santoro N, Steiner AZ; Reproductive Medicine Network. Major depression, antidepressant use, and male and female fertility. Fertil Steril. 2018 May;109(5):879-887. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.01.029. PMID:29778387

Allshouse AA, Santoro N, Green R, Wong JYY, Upchurch DM, Neal-Perry G, Thurston RC, Derby CA. Religiosity and faith in relation to time to metabolic syndrome for Hispanic women in a multiethnic cohort of women-Findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Maturitas. 2018 Jun;112:18-23. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.03.008. Epub 2018 Mar 13. PMID:29704912

Greenwood EA, Cedars MI, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Kao CN, Haisenleder DJ, Diamond MP, Huddleston HG; National Institutes of Health/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Antimüllerian hormone levels and antral follicle counts are not reduced compared with community controls in patients with rigorously defined unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril. 2017 Dec;108(6):1070-1077. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.09.015. PMID:29202959

Santoro N, Allshouse AA, Neal-Perry G, Pal L, Lobo RA, Naftolin F, Black DM, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Dowling NM, Dunn M, Gleason CE, Hodis HN, Isaac B, Magnani M, Manson JE, Miller VM, Taylor HS, Wharton W, Wolff E, Zepeda V, Harman SM. Longitudinal changes in menopausal symptoms comparing women randomized to low-dose oral conjugated estrogens or transdermal estradiol plus micronized progesterone versus placebo. Menopause. 2017;24(3):238-246. doi:10.1097/gme.0000000000000756.

Chosich J, Bradford AP, Allshouse AA, Reusch JEB, Santoro N, Schauer IE. Acute recapitulation of the hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia characteristic of metabolic syndrome suppresses gonadotropins. Obesity. 2017;25(3):553-560. doi:10.1002/oby.21754.

Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Trussell JC, Craig LB, Gracia C, Huang H, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman G, Coutifaris C, Diamond M, Jin S, Legro RS, Robinson RD, Schlaff WD, Zhang H. Fertility-related quality of life from two RCT cohorts with infertility: unexplained infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction. 2016;31(10):2268-2279. doi:10.1093/humrep/dew175.

Mumford SL, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Steiner AZ, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Christman GM, Casson PR, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Cedars MI.. Baseline AMH Level Associated With Ovulation Following Ovulation Induction in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2016;101(9):3288-3296. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-1340.

Hansen KR, He AL, Styer AK, Wild RA, Butts S, Engmann L, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Predictors of pregnancy and live-birth in couples with unexplained infertility after ovarian stimulation–intrauterine insemination. Fertility and Sterility. 2016;105(6):1575-1583. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.02.020.

Steiner AZ, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Barnhart KT, Casson PR, Christman GM, Alvero R, Hansen KR, Geisler WM, Thomas T, Santoro N, Zhang H, Eisenberg E. Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin G3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes. Fertility and Sterility. 2015;104(6):1522-1526. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.08.022.

Kuang H, Jin S, Thomas T, Engmann L, Hansen KR, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Zhang H. Predictors of participant retention in infertility treatment trials. Fertility and Sterility. 2015; 104(5):1236-43. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.08.001

Pinkerton JV, Santoro N. Compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: identifying use trends and knowledge gaps among US women. Menopause. 2015; 22(9):926-36. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000420.

Kuang H, Jin S, Hansen KR, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Huang H, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi S, Baker V, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Legro RS, Zhang H. Identification and replication of prediction models for ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction. 2015; 30(9):2222-33. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dev182.

Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Ager J, Huang H, Hansen KR, Baker V, Usadi R, Seungdamrong A, Bates GW, Rosen RM, Haisonleder D, Krawetz SA, Barnhart K, Trussell JC, Jin Y, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Assessment of multiple intrauterine gestations from ovarian stimulation (AMIGOS) trial: baseline characteristics. Fertility and Sterility. 2015; 103(4):962-973. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.12.130.