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Clay Smith, MD

Clay Smith, MD
University of Colorado School of Medicine
  • Associate Division Head for Clinical Affairs, Division of Hematology 
  • Program Director, Blood Cancer & BMT Program
  • Professor of Medicine

Contact information

Anschutz Medical Campus
1665 Aurora Court, MS F754
Aurora, CO  80045

Dr. Smith received his bachelor’s degree from Rice University and his MD from University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School where he also completed his internship.  The majority of his post-graduate training was completed in New York City, with residency at NY Hospital/Cornell Medical Center and a fellowship in Hematology and Oncology at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.  He performed advanced fellowship training in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at Stanford University.  Dr. Smith’s first faculty appointment was as an Assistant Professor at Duke University where he established a highly successful research program specifically focused on gene transfer strategies for therapeutic modification of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and novel methods of high throughput flow cytometric analysis.  Dr. Smith has also served in appointments with the Moffitt Cancer Center, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, and University of Pittsburgh.  Throughout the course of his career, Dr. Smith has published over 100 scientific articles, been an invited speaker at over 50 presentations and obtained over $10 million in funding.

He was recruited to serve as the program director of the Blood Cancer & BMT Program at the University of Colorado in 2012, and currently is the Associate Chief of the Division of Hematology.
  • B.A., Biology Rice University, Houston, TX
  • M.D., Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX
  • Internship, Parkland Hospital, Dallas, TX
  • Residency, NY Hospital/ Cornell U Med Center, NY, NY
  • Fellow, Hematology/Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY
  • Fellow, Bone Marrow Transplant, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto
Dr. Smith’s research has been devoted to the advancement of care for persons with blood cancers through characterizing and manipulating the biology of normal, and more recently, malignant hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).  He has pursued this through a series of basic, translational and clinical studies that have included characterizing and transplanting umbilical cord blood stem cells, attempts at ex-vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells and most recently in the development of novel flow cytometric and associated bioinformatic tools to identify and study the biology of HSCs and leukemic stem cells (LSCs). These technologies have included developing high throughput/high content flow cytometry strategies as well as associated data mining and analysis tools. 

In addition, Dr. Smith’s laboratory developed the flow cytometric reagent Aldefluor to identify stem cells based on Aldehyde Dehyrdrogenase (ALDH) activity. This approach has become one of the widest used strategies for identifying both normal and malignant stem cells from a variety of tissues and organisms.  Dr. Smith’s laboratory has shown that virtually all human HSCs and myeloid progenitors are captured by Aldefluor staining (ALDHbr cells), that the number of these cells predicts hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and have characterized a number of other features of ALDHbr cells that have provided pre-clinical background for using Aldefluor as a stem cell transplant quality control tool as well as a novel means of purging autologous transplants of contaminating tumor cells and preparing HSCs for ex-vivo expansion and gene therapy efforts. 

More recently, they have capitalized on the observation that many stem cells express ALDH to try and understand the biology of this interesting gene family and how it may be utilized to manipulate normal and hematopoietic stem cells. This has led to the discovery that one of the major roles for high levels of ALDH in stem cells is the management of compounds termed reactive aldehydes, which are the byproducts of metabolism and reactive oxygen species.  They have also shown that reactive aldehyde accumulation in HSCs can impact many critical cell processes and can predispose to leukemia development. 

Most recently, they have capitalized on this finding to develop a novel strategy for targeting leukemic stem cells which will soon be translated into a clinical trial for persons with AML.  This novel treatment strategy may also be applicable to other blood cancers including myeloma and possibly solid tumors as well.
1. Parise RA, Beumer JH, Clause DM, Covey JM, Rigatti LH, Ziegler JA, Gasparetto M, Smith CA, Eiseman JL.  Effects of the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram on the plasma pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and toxicity of benzaldehyde dimethane sulfonate (NSC281612, DMS612, BEN) in mice. Epub, Sept 24, 2013.  PMID:  24061865

2. McLaughlin B, Im A, Raptis A, Hou JZ, Redner R, Duggal S, Lin Y, Smith C, Boyiadzis M. Fludarabine and cytarabine in patients with relapsed actute myeloid leukemia. Int J Hematol, epub Nov 7, 2012.  PMID:  23132594

3. Vasillis V, Smith C, Thompson D, Mayumi F, Chen Y. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: From eye crystallins to metabolic disease and stem cells. Chem Biol Interact, epub Nov 16, 2012.  PMID: PMID:  23159885

4. Coffey DG, Pollyea DA, Myint H, Smith C, and Gutman JG. Cotes DLCO adjustment for hemoglobin overestimates non-relapse mortality predicted by the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index. Bone Marrow Transplantation, epub March 2013.  PMID:  23503530

5. Shen H, Yu H, Liang PH, Cheng, Xufeng R, Yuan Y, Zhang P and Smith C and Cheng T. An acute negative bystander effect of γ-irradiated recipients on transplanted hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. epub Feb 28, 2012.  PMID:  22374698

6. Gasparetto M, Sekulovic S, Brocker C, Tang P, Zakaryan A, Xiang P, Kuchenbauer F, Wen, M, Katayoon K, Witty MF, Rosten P, Chen Y, Imren S, Duester G, Thompson DC, Humphries RK, Vasiliou V and Smith C. ALDH3A1 compensates for loss of ALDH1A1 in hematopoiesis and influences hematopoietic stem cell numbers, cell cycle status and early B-cell development. Exp Heme. epub Dec 20, 2011.  PMID:  22198153

7. Steinman RA, Yang Q, Gasparetto M, Robinson LJ, Liu X, Lenzner DE, Hou J, Smith C and Wang Q. Deletion of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 causes regression of established chronic myelogenous leukemia in mice. Int J Cancer, epub Sept 18, 2012.  PMID:  22987615

8. Gasparetto M, Sekulovic S, Zakaryan A, Kent DG, Humphries RK, and Smith C. The significance of varying levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in murine marrow. Exp Heme, Epub, June 6, 2012.  PMID:  22683567

9. Toze CL, Dalal CB, Nevill TJ, Gillan TL, Abou Mourad Y, Barnett MJ, Broady RC, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Nantel SH, Power MM, Song KW, Sutherland JH, Smith CA, Narayanan S, Connors JM, Shepherd JD. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for CLL: outcome in a 20 year cohort.  British Journal of Hematology, epub My 29, 2012.  PMID:  22640008

10. Sekulovic S, Gasparetto M, Lecault V, Hoesli CA, Kent DG, Rosten P, Wan A, Brookes C, Hansen CL, Piret JM, Smith C, Eaves CJ, Humphries RK. Ontogeny stage-independent and high-level clonal expansion in vitro of mouse hematopoietic stem cells stimulated by an engineered NUP98-HOX fusion transcription factor. Blood. 118(16):4366-76, 2011.  PMID:  21865344

11. Sekulovic S, Gylfadottir V, Vulto I, Gasparetto M, Even Y, Brookes C, Smith C, Eaves C, Lasdorp P and Rossi F.  Prolonged self-renewal activity unmasks telomerase control of telomere homeostasis and function of mouse hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 118(7):1766-73, 2011.   PMID: 21730353

12. Venner CP, Connors JM, Sutherland HJ, Shepherd JD, Hamata L, Mourad YA, Barnett MJ, Broady R, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Nantel SH, Narayanan S, Nevill TJ, Nitta J, Power MM, Toze CL, Smith CA, Song KW. Novel agents improve survival of transplant patients with multiple myeloma including those with high-risk disease defined by early relapse (<12 months). Leuk Lymphoma. 52(1):34-41, 2011.  PMID:  21133716

13. Kanda J, Rizzieri DA, Gasparetto C, Long GD, Chute JP, Sullivan KM, Morris A, Smith CA, Hogge DE, Nitta J, Song K, Niedzwiecki D, Chao NJ and Horowitz ME.  Adult dual umbilical cord blood transplantation using myeloablative Total Body Irradiation and fludarabine conditioning. Biol Blood and Marrow Transplant. 17:867, 2011.  PMID: 20868761

14. Seftel MD, Paulson K, Doocey R, Song K, Czaykowski P, Coppin C, Forrest D, Hogge D, Kollmansberger C, Smith C, Shepherd JD, Toze CL, Murray N, Sutherland H, Nantel S, Nevill TJ and Barnett MJ. Long term follow up of patients undergoing auto-SCT for germ cell turmour: a multicohort study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 46:852, 2011.  PMID: 21042312

15. Jiang X, Forrest D, Nicolini F, Turhan A, Guilhot F, Yip C, Holyoake T, Jorgensen H, Lambie K, Saw KM, Pang E, Vukovic R, Lehn P, Ringrose A, Yu M, Brinkman R, Smith C, Eaves AE and Eaves C.. Properties of CD34+ CML stem/progenitor cells that correlate with different clinical responses to imatinib mesylate. Blood. 116:2112-21, 2010.  PMID: 20574046

16. Wright MP, Shepherd JD, Barnett MJ, Nantel SH, Sutherland JH, Toze CL, Hogge DE, Nevill TJ, Song KW, Abou Mourad YR, Narayanan S, Power MM, Smith CA and Forrest DL. Response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia relapsing in chronic and advanced phase following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 16, p639-646, 2010.  PMID: 20005967

17. Rempel R, Mori S, Gasparetto M, Glozak M, Andrechek ER, Adler SB, Laakso NM, Lagoo AS, Storms R, Smith C and Nevins JR. A role for E2F activities in determining the fate of Myc-induced lymphoagenesis. PLOS Genetics. 5(9) epub Sept 11, 2009.  PMID: 19749980

18. Mourad YA, Lau BC, Barnett MJ, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Nantel SH, Nevill TJ, Shepherd JD, Smith CA, Song KW, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL and Lavoie JC. Long-term outcome after allo-SCT: Close follow-up on a large cohort treated with myeloablative regimens. Bone Marrow Transplantation. 45(2):295-302, 2010.  PMID: 19597425

19. Maurer-Spurej E, A, Lam D, Pittendreigh C, Chipperfield K, Smith C, Heddle N, Liu Y, Yi QL and Barnett MJ. Platelet quality measured with the new ThromboLUX™ correlates with transfusion outcome in hematologic malignancies. Transfusion. 49(11):2276-84, 2009. PMID: 19903289

20. Nevill TJ, JD. Shepherd, HJ. Sutherland, YR. Abou Mourad, JC. Lavoie, MJ. Barnett, SH. Nantel, CL. Toze, DE. Hogge, DL. Forrest, KW. Song, MM Power, JY. Nitta, S Wong, CA Smith. IPSS poor-risk karyotype as a predictor of outcome for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome following myeloablative stem cell transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 15:205-213, 2009.  PMID: 19167680

21. Kent, DG, Copley MR, Benz C, Dykstra BJ, Ma E, Cheyne J, Zhao Y, Bowie M, Zhao M, Gasparetto M, Delaney A, Smith C, Marra M and Eaves CJ. Prospective isolation and molecular characterization of hematopoietic stem cells with durable self-renewal potential. Blood. 113:6342, 2009. PMID: 19377048

22. Forrest DL, Trainor S, Brinkman RR, Barnett MJ, Hogge DE, Nevill TJ, Shepherd JD, Nantel SH, Toze CL, Sutherland HJ, Song KW, Lavoie JC, Power MM, Abou-Mourad Y and Smith CA. Cytogenetic and molecular responses to standard-dose imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia are correlated with Sokal risk scores and duration of therapy but not trough imatinib plasma levels. Leuk Res. 33:271-5, 2009.  PMID: 18762337

23. Stewart DA, Smith C, McFarland R and Calandra G. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of plerixafor in patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and multiple myeloma, Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 15:39-46, 2009. PMID: 19135941

24. Owen C, Toze CL, Koochin A, Forrest DL, Smith CA, Eaves CJ, Jackson S, Sinclair G, Leber B, Johnson PRE, Macheta A, Yin JAL, Lister TA, Barnett MJ, Fitzgibbon J..New cases of familial platelet disorder with propensity to myeloid malignancy (fpd/aml) support the value of runx1 screening in MDS/AML. Blood. 112:4639-45, 2008.  PMID: 18723428

25. Ramadan K, Connors JM, Al-Tourah A, Song KW, Gascoyen R, TJ. Nevill, JD. Shepherd, HJ. Sutherland, YR. Abou Mourad, JC. Lavoie, MJ. Barnett, SH. Nantel, CL. Toze, DE. Hogge, DL. Forrest, Voss N, Smith CA and Toze C. Allogeneic SCT for relapsed composite and transformed grade lymphoma using related and unrelated donors: long-term results. Blood and Marrow Transplant.  42:601-8, 2008.  PMID: 18695664

26. Nevill TJ, Shepherd JD, Sutherland HJ, Abou Mourad YR, Lavoie JC, Barnett MJ, Nantel SH, Toze CL, Hogge DE, Forrest DL, Song KW, Power MM, Nitta JY, Wong S and Smith CA. Predictors of outcome following myeloablative allo-SCT for therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and AML. Bone Marrow Transplant. 42:659-66, 2008. PMID:  18679372

27. Draper NL, Conley C, Smith C and Benson K. Dispermic chimerism identified during HLA typing for stem cell transplantation. Transfusion.  48(7):1398-402, 2008.  PMID: 18422842

28. Lee JA, Spidlen J, Atwater S, Boyce K, Cai J, Crosbie N, Dalphin M, Furlong J, Gasparetto M, Goldberg M, Hyun B, Jansen K, Kollmann T, Kong M, Lary D, Leif R, McWeeney S, Moloshok TD, Moore W, Nolan G, Nolan J, Nikolich-Zugich J, Parrish D, Price J, Purcell B, Qian Y, Selvaraj B, Simmerson M, Smith C, Tchuvatkina O, Wilkinson P, Wertheimer A, Wilson C, Scheuermann RH, and Brinkman R.  MIFlowCyt: The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment. Cytometry A. 73:926-30, 2008.  PMID: 18752282

29. Kuruvilla J, Nevill TJ, Nitta J, Le A, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Lavoie JC, Nantel SH, Song KW, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL, Smith C, Barnett MJ and Shepherd JD. Long-term outcomes of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 13, 925-31, 2007.  PMID: 17640596

30. Christ, O, Lucke K, Imren S, Leung K, Hamilton M, Eaves A, Smith C and Eaves C.   Improved purification of hematopoietic stem cells based on their elevated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, Haematologica. 92(9):1165-72, 2007.  PMID: 17666374

31. Halim TY, Song KW, Barnett MJ, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Nantel SH, Nevill TJ, Shepherd JD, Smith CA, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL, and Lavoie JC.. Positive impact of selective outpatient management of high risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia on the incidence of septicemia. Annals of Oncology. 18: 1246-1252, 2007.  PMID: 17442662

32. Ohta H, Sekulovic S, Bakovic S, Eaves C, Pineault N, Gasparetto M, Smith C, Sauvageau G and Humphries RK.  Near maximal expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in culture using NUP98-Hox fusions. Experimental Hematology. 35: 817-830, 2007.  PMID:17577930

33. Brinkman R, Gasparetto M, Lee J and Smith C. High content flow cytometry to determine predictors of GvHD following allogeneic transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 13(6):691-700, 2007.  PMID:  17531779

34. Le Meur N, Rossini A, Gasparetto M, Smith C, Brinkman R and Gentleman R. Data quality assessment in high throughput flow cytometry experiments, Cytometry A. 71(6):393-403, 2007.  PMID: 17366638

35. Jiang X, Zhao Y, Smith CA, Gasparetto M, Saw AM, Eaves, A and Eaves C. Chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells possess unique properties that predict intrinsic and acquired resistance to imatinib mesylate. Leukemia. 21(5):926-35, 2007.  PMID: 17330101

36. Song KW, Barnett MJ, Gascoyne RD, Chanabhai M, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Lavoie JC, Nantel SH, Nevill TJ, Shepherd JD, Smith CA, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL, Voss NJ, Connors JM.  Primary therapy of adults with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation results in excellent outcomes. Annals of Oncology.18:535-540, 2007.  PMID: 17158775

37. Walsh, CJ, Luer VA, Bodine AB, Smith CA, Cox HL, Noyes DR and Gasparetto M. Elasmobranch immune cells as a source of novel tumor cell inhibitors: Implications for public health. Integr Comp Biol. 46:1072-1081, 2006. PMID:  19343108

38. Savoie ML, Nevill TJ, Song KW, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Nantel SH, Smith CA, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL, Lavoie JC. Shifting to outpatient management of acute myeloid leukemia: a prospective experience. Annals of Oncology. 17:763-8, 2006.  PMID: 16497826

39.vLi S, Ferguson MJ, Hawkins CJ, Smith C and Elwood N. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase protects hematopoietic progenitor TF-1 cells from death and quiescence induced by cytokine withdrawal. Leukemia. 20, p1270-8, 2006. PMID: 16673017

40. Spidlen J, Gentleman RC, Haaland P, Langille M, LeMeur N, Ochs MF, Schmitt C, Smith C, Treister A and Brinkman R. Data standards for flow cytometry. OMICS. 10, p209-14, 2006.  PMID: 16901228

41. Johny A, Song KW, Nantel, SH, Lavoie JC, Toze CL, Hogge DE, Forrest DL, Sutherland HJ, Le A, Nitta JY, Barnett MJ, Smith CA, Shepherd JD and Nevill TJ. Early stem cell transplantation for refractory acute leukemia after salvage therapy with high dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 12, 480-489, 2006.  PMID: 16545732

42. Lin Y, Bruyere H, Horsman D, Pantzer T, Barnett M, Hogge D, Nevill TJ, Nantel S, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL, Shepherd J, Lavoie JC, Song KW, Smith CA and Forrest DL. Philadelphia-negative clonal hematopoiesis following imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: a report of 9 cases and analysis of predictive factors. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. 170, 16-23, 2006.  PMID: 16965950

43. Song KW, Barnett MJ, Gascoyne RD, Horsman DE, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Lavoie JC, SH Nantel1, Nevill TJ, Shepherd JD, Smith CA, Sutherland HJ, Voss NJ, Toze CL, Connors JM. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as primary therapy of sporadic adult Burkitt lymphoma. British Journal of Hematology. 133, 634-7, 2006. PMID: 16704438

44. Bennet M, Sirrs S, Yeung J and Smith C. Hypercalcemia due to all trans retinoic acid in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia potentiated by voriconazole. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 46, 1829-1831, 2005.  PMID: 16263588

45. Doocey RD, Barnett MJ, Gascoyne RD, Horsman DE, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Lavoie JC, SH Nantel, Nevill TJ, Shepherd JD, Smith CA, Sutherland HJ, Voss NJ, Toze CL, Connors JM, Song KW. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory aggressive histology Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. British Journal of Haematology. 131, 223-230, 2005.  PMID: 16197454

46. Toze CL, Galal A, Barnett MJ, Shepherd JD, Conneally EA, Hogge DE, Nantel SH, Nevill TJ, Sutherland HJ, Connors JM, Voss NJ, Kiss TL, Messner HA, Lavoie JC, Forrest DL, Song KW, Smith CA, Lipton J. Myeloablative allografting for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for a potent graft-versus-leukemia effect associated with graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 36(9):825-30, 2005.  PMID: 16151430

47. Song KW, Molllee PN, Hogge DE, Gupta V, Barnett MJ, Forrest DL, Lavoie JC, Nevill TJ, Nantel SH, Shepherd JD, Smith CA, Sutherland HJ, Toze CCI, Crump M and Keating A. Predictive value of karyotype on outcome of autotransplants for acute myeloid leukemia in second remission. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 46, 525-531, 2005.  PMID: 16019480

48. Rizzieri DA, Koh, LP, Long, GD, Gasparetto C, Sullivan KM, Horwitz M, Chute J, Smith C, Buckley PJ, Gong JZ, Lagoo A, Niedzwiecki D, Waters-Pick B, Burleson J, Morris A, Vredenburgh, Gockerman J, Decastro C, Moore J and Chao N. Haplo-identical non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation. J Clinical Oncology. 25. 690-7, 2007.  PMID:  17228020

49. Greenwood MJ, Seftel MD, Richardson C, Barbaric D, Barnett MJ, Bruyere H, Forrest DL, Horsman DE, Smith C, Song K, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL, Nevill TJ, Nantel S and Hogge DE. Leukocyte count as a predictor of death during remission induction in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 47, p1245-52, 2006.  PMID:16923553

50. Storms R, Green PD, Safford KM, Niedzwicki D, Cogle CR, Colvin MO, Rice H and Smith C. Distinct human hematopoietic compartments are delineated by expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase and CD34. Blood, 96, 95-102, 2005. PMID: 15790790

51. Meunch MO, Ohkubo T, Smith C, Suskind DL and Barcena A. Effects of cytokines on the maintenance of proliferative capacity and retroviral transduction of human fetal CD34+CD38- cells. Stem Cells and Development. 15, 97-108, 2006.  PMID: 16522167

52. Lavoie JC, Connors JM, Phillip G, Reece D, Barnett MJ, Forrest D, Gascoyne R, Hogge D, Nantel SN, Shepherd JD, Smith C, Song KW, Sutherland H, Toze C, Voss NJ and Nevill T. High dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for primary refractory or relapsed Hodgkin’s lymphoma: long term outcome in the first 100 patients treated in Vancouver. Blood. 106, 1473-78, 2005.  PMID: 15870180

53. Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Nevill TJ, Lavoie JC, Nantel SN, Barnett MJ, Shepherd JD, Smith CA, Song, KW, Sutherland H, Toze CL, Voss NJ, Gascoyne R, Connors JM. High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not increase the risk of second neoplasms for patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a comparison of conventional therapy alone versus conventional therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 23, 7994-8002, 2005.  PMID:  16204014

54. Gasparetto M, Sebti S, Bhalla K and Smith C. Identification of compounds that enhance the       anti-lymphoma activity of rituximab using flow cytometric high-content screening.  J  Immunologic Methods. 292, 59-71, 2004.  PMID:  15350512

55. Elwood N, Jiang XR, Chiu CP, Lebkowski J and Smith C. Enhanced long term survival but no increased replicative capacity following retroviral transduction of cord blood CD34+ cells with hTERT. Hematologica. 89, 377-378, 2004.  PMID: 15020288

56. Nimmanapalli R, Fuino L, Bali P, Gasparetto M, Glozak M, Tao J, Moscinski L, Smith C, Wu J, Jove R, Atadja P, Bhalla K. Histone deacetylase inhibitor LAQ824 both lowers expression and promotes proteasomal degradation of Bcr-Abl and induces apoptosis of imatinib mesylate-sensitive or -refractory chronic myelogenous leukemia-blast crisis cells. Cancer Res. 63(16):5126-35, 2003.  PMID: 12941844

57. Long GW, Maden B, Kurtzberg J, Rubinstein P, Gasparetto C, Rizzieri D, Smith C, Vredenburgh J, Halperin E, Broadwater G, Niedzweiki D and Chao NJ. Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation in adult patients, Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 9, 772-80, 2003.  PMID: 14677117

58. Rizzieri DA, Talbot JT, Long GW, Vredenburgh JW, Gasparetto C, Smith C, Colvin MO, Adams D, Morris A, Dodge R, Loftis J, Waters-Pick B, Reese M, Carawan H and Chao N. 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide purged peripheral blood stem cells for autologous transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Biol Blood and Marrow Transplant. 9, 183-188. 2003.  PMID: 12652469

59. Fallon P, Kerr W, Gentry T, Balber A, Ludeman S, Storms R and Smith C. Hematopoietic progenitors which express high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase can be counted and enriched from mobilized peripheral blood. Br J Hematology. 122, 99-108, 2003. PMID: 12823351

60. Nishimura J, Ware RE, Burnette A, Pendleton AL, Kitano K, Hirota H, Machii T, Kitani T, Smith  C and Rosse WF. The hematopoietic defect in PNH is not due to defective stroma or abnormal interactions between bone marrow progenitor cells and stroma. Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases. 29, 2002.  PMID:  12490282

61. Gasparetto C, Gasparetto M, Vredenberg J, Long G, Rizzieri D, Chao N, Loftis J and Smith C.  Mobilization of dendritic cells from patients with breast cancer into peripheral blood stem cell leukapheresis samples using Flt-3-ligand and G-CSF or GM-CSF. Cytokine. 18, 8-19, 2002.  PMID: 120090755

62. McGaughey DS, Nikcevich DA, Long GD, Vredenburgh JJ, Rizzieri D, Smith CA, Broadwater G, Loftis JS, McDonald C, Moffiss AK, Floz RF and Chao NF. Inhaled steroids as prophylaxis for delayed pulmonary toxicity syndrome in breast cancer patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.  Biol Blood and Marrow Transplant. 7, 274-278, 2001.  PMID: 11400900949

63. Leone G, Sears R, Huang E, Rempel R, Nuckolls F, Park CH, Field SJ, Thompson MA, Ynag H, Fujiwara Y, Greenberg ME, Orkin S, DeGregori J, Smith C, Nevins J. Myc requires distinct E2F proteins to induce S phase and apoptosis. Molecular Cell. 8: 105-113, 2001.  PMID: 11511364

64. Ohkubo T, Barcena A, Smith C, Harrison MR and Muench M. High efficiency retroviral transduction of fetal liver CD38-CD34++ cells: Implications for in utero and ex utero gene therapy. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. 16, 299-317, 2001.  PMID: 11509853

65. Nishimura J, Rosse WF, Phillips K and Smith C. Retroviral vector gene transfer of the pig-A gene into hematopoietic cells affected by paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood. 97, 3004-3010, 2001.  PMID: 11342424

66. Lan N, Rooney B, Lee SW, Howrey R, Smith C and Sullenger B. Enhancing RNA repair efficiency by combining trans-splicing ribozyme that recognize different accessible sites on a target RNA. Molecular Therapy. 2, p245, 2000.  PMID: 10985955

67. Rempel RE, Saenz-Robles MT, Storms R, Morham S, Ishida S, Engel A, Jakoi L, Melhem MF, Pipas JM, Smith C, Nevins JR. An E2F4 knockout mouse has abnormalities of growth and development in multiple tissues including the gut and the hematopoietic system, Molecular Cell. 6:293-306, 2000.  PMID: 10983977

68. Storms B, Goodell P, Mulligan R and Smith C. Hoechst dye efflux reveals a novel CD7+CD34- Lin- lymphoid progenitor in human umbilical cord blood. Blood. 96: 2125-2133, 2000. PMID:10979957

69. Howrey R and Smith C. Retroviral vector gene transfer into human erythroid precursors generated in-vitro. Gene Therapy.  7: 215-220, 2000. 

70. Smith C. Isolation of primitive human hematopoietic progenitors on the basis of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.   Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 96:9118-9123, 1999.  PMID:  10430905

71. Castellino S and Smith C. Gene marking of ex-vivo expanded human umbilical cord blood megakaryocyte progenitors, Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 5:215-221, 1999.  PMID: 10465101

72. Gentry T and Smith C. Retroviral vector gene transfer into CD34+CD38-33- umbilical cord blood cells, Experimental Hematology. 27:1244-1254, 1999.  PMID: 10428501

73. Lin WC, Moore J, Mann K, Traweek S, and Smith C. Post transplant CD8+  T-cell lymphoma associated with human herpes virus-6 infection, Leukemia and Lymphoma. 33: 377-384, 1999.  PMID:  10221519

74. Lee N, Howrey R, Lee SW, Smith C and Sullenger B. Ribozyme-Mediated Repair of Sickle β-Globin mRNAs in Erythrocyte Precursors. Science. 280: 1593-1596, 1998.  PMID: 9616120

75. Ware RE, Nishimura J, Smith C, Rosse W, and Howard T. The PIG-A mutation and
absence of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins do not confer resistance to apoptosis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood. 92:2541-2550, 1998.  PMID:  9746796

76. Miralles D, Smith C, Wichard LP, Morse M, Kostyu D, Haynes B and Patel D. CD34+CD38- umbilical cord blood cells develop into dendritic cells on human thymic stromal layers and micronodules. Journal of Immunology. 160: 3290-3298, 1998.  PMID:  9531286

77. Laughlin MJ, Rizzieri D, Smith C, Moore JO, Lilly S, Martin P, Carrier C, Stevens CE, Rubinstein P, Kurtzberg J.  Engraftment and reconstitution of immune function post -unrelated cord blood transplant in an adult with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia Research. 22(3):215-9, 1998.  PMID: 9619913

78. McCowage GB, Ruddoll T, Phillips K, Hull S, Gilboa E, and Smith C. Multiparameter fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of retroviral vector gene transfer into primitive umbilical cord blood cells. Experimental Hematology. 26:288-298, 1998. PMID: 9546311

79. Morris M, Zhou LJ, Tedder T, Lyerly HK, Smith C. Generation of dendritic cells in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin-4, and tumor necrosis factor for use in cancer immunotherapy. Annals of Surgery. 226:6-16, 1997.  PMID: 9242332

80. Lee SW, Smith C, and E Gilboa. Inhibition of HIV-1 with a potent trans-activation response element (TAR) decoy. International Antiviral News. 4(3):39-41, 1996.  PMID: 7966618

81. Kurtzberg JK, Laughlin M, Graham ML, Smith C, Olson JF, Casey JR, Carrier C, Stevens C, and Rubenstein P.  Transplantation of HLA-matched and partially mismatched stored placental blood-a viable alternative source of hemopoietic stem cells for unrelated transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine. 335(3):157-166, 1996.  PMID:  8657213

82. Phillips K, Gentry T, McCowage G, Gilboa E, and Smith C. Cell surface markers for assessing gene transfer in human hematopoietic cells. Nature Medicine, 2(10):1154-1157, 1996.  PMID: 8837618

83. Nishimura J, Kinoshita T, Smith C, Kitano K, Hoffman S, Burnette A, Inoue N, Machii T, Gilboa E, Kurtzberg J, Kitani T, Takeda J, and Rosse WF.  Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: molecular pathogenesis and molecular therapeutic approaches. Hematopathology and Molecular Hematology. 11(3&4):119-146, 1997.  PMID: 9844822

84. Rudoll T, Phillips K, Lee SW, Gaspar O, Gilboa E, and Smith C.  High efficiency retroviral vector mediated gene transfer into human peripheral blood CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Gene Therapy. 3(8): 695-705, 1996.  PMID: 8854095

85. Smith C, Lee SW, Gallardo H, Wong E, Page K, Gaspar O, and Gilboa E.  Protection of human T-cells from HIV following adeno-associated viral vector mediated gene transfer of RNA decoys. Antiviral Research. 32:99-115, 1996. PMID: 8891169

86. Vieweg J, Boczkowski D, Roberson KM, Edwards DW, Philip M, Philip R, Rudoll T, Smith C, Robertson C, Gilboa E. Efficient gene transfer with adeno-associated virus-based plasmids complexed to cationic liposomes for gene therapy of human prostate cancer. Cancer Research. 55(11):2366-72, 1995.  PMID: 7757988 

87. Lee SW, Smith C, Gallardo H, and Gilboa E.  Inhibition of HIV by highly expressed trans-activating response RNA decoys. Gene Therapy. 2:p377, 1995. PMID: 7966618

88. Lee SW, Gallardo H, Gilboa E, and Smith C.  Inhibition of HIV-1 in human T-Cells by a potent RRE decoy comprised of the 13 nucleotide long minimal rev binding domain. Journal of Virology. 68: 8254, 1994.  PMID: 7966618

89. Gasparetto C, Smith C, Gillio A, Moore MAS, O'Reilly RJ. Enrichment of peripheral blood stem cells using in-vivo cytokine administration in a primate model. Bone Marrow Transplantation. 14:717, 1994.  PMID: 7534159

90. Gasparetto C, Smith C, Firpo M, Gillio A, O'Reilly RJ, and Moore MAS. Dyshematopoiesis in combined immunodeficiency associated with congenital neutropenia. American Journal of Hematology. 45: 63, 1994.  PMID: 8250011

91. Bordignon C, Mavillo F, Ferrari G, Servida P, Ugazio AG, Notarangelo LD, Gilboa E, Rossini S, O'Reilly RJ, Smith CA, et al. Transfer of the ADA gene into bone marrow cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes for the treatment of patients affected by ADA deficient SCID. Human Gene Therapy. 4: 513, 1993.  PMID:8399494

92. Smith C, Meunch MO, Gilboa E, and Moore MAS. Development of a lacZ Marked WEHI-3B D+ Murine leukemic cell line as an in-vivo model of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, Leukemia. 7:310, 1993.  PMID: 8426483

93. Smith C, Gasparetto C, Collins N, Gillio A, Meunch M, O'Reilly RJ, Moore MAS. Partial purification and characterization of a human Pre-CFU-GM progenitor population. Blood. 77:2122, 1991.  PMID: 1709369

94. Sullenger B, Lee T, Smith C, Ungers G, Gilboa E.  Expression of chimeric tRNA-Antisense transcripts renders NIH3T3 cells highly resistant to Maloney Murine Leukemia Virus replication. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 10:6152, 1990.  PMID: 2247070

95. Laver J, Aboud M, Gasparetto C, Gillio A, Smith C, O'Reilly RJ, and Moore MAS. Effects of IL-1a on hematopoietic recovery after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Biotherapy. 1:293, 1989.  PMID: 2484306

96. Gasparetto, C, Laver J, Aboud M, Gillio A, Smith C, O'Reilly RJ, Moore, MAS.  Effects of IL-1on hematopoietic progenitors: evidence of stimulatory and inhibitory activities in a primate model. Blood. 72:547, 1989.  PMID: 2787677

97. Bordignon C, Yu SF, Smith C, Hantzopoulos P, Ungers G, O'Reilly RJ, Gilboa E.  High level expression of retroviral mediated ADA expression in ADA deficient human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 86:6748, 1989.  PMID: 2549545

98. Chinault AC, Blakesley VA, Roessler E, Willis DG, Smith C, Cook RG, Fenwick RG.  Characterization of transferable plasmids from Shigella flexnerii 2a that confer resistance to trimethoprim, streptomycin and sulfonamides. Plasmid. 15:119, 1986.  PMID: 3517903

Book Chapters and Reviews

1. Smith C.  ALDHs in hematopoietic stem cells and leukemagenesis.  NYAS, in press.
Forrest DL, Jiang X, Eaves CJ and Smith C. An approach to the management of chronic myeloid leukemia in British Columbia. Curr Oncol. 15:90-97. 2008.

2. Jiang X, Zhao Y, Forrest D, Smith C, Eaves A and Eaves C. Stem cell biomarkers in chronic myeloid leukemia. Disease Markers. 24:201-216, 2008.

3. Jiang X, Smith C, Eaves A and Eaves C. The challenges of targeting chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells. Clinical Lymphoma and Myeloma. 7, suppl 2:S71-80, 2007.

4. Smith C.  Stem Cells and Transplantation. Cancer Control. 11, 75-77, 2004.

5. Smith C. Hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoiesis. Cancer Control. 10, 9-16, 2003.

6. Elwood N and Smith C. Retroviral vector gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells: an overview. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 41, p1-18, 2001.

7. Rice H, Storms R, Smith C, and Flake AW. Hematopoietic stem cells: basic concepts and applications to surgical research. Surgical Research. Edited by W Souba and D Wilmore, Academic Press, 207-214, 2001.

8. Smith C and Storms R. Hematopoietic stem cells. Clinical Orthopedics and Basic Research. 379S, S91-S97, 2000.

9. Smith C and Miralles D. Cytoreductive therapy, bone marrow transplantation and HIV infection. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 14:1305-1313, 1998.

10. Smith C. "An overview of HIV gene therapy". In: Gene Therapy for HIV Infection, Smith C, ed. RG Landis, Inc. Austin, Texas, 5-11, 1998.

11. Smith C and Gasparetto G. "Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation:  Issues in HIV gene therapy".  In: Gene Therapy for HIV Infection. Smith C, ed. RG Landis, Inc. Austin, Texas, 139-158, 1998.

12. Smith C, ed. Gene Therapy for HIV Infection. RG Landis, Inc. Austin, Texas, 1998.

13. Lilly S, Miralles D, Mann K, Lyerly HK and Smith C. AIDS related malignancies. Annals of Medicine. 30:323-344, 1998.

14. Lee SW, Gilboa E, and Smith C. Inhibition of HIV-1 with RNA decoys. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 17(3):369-371, 1996.

15. Lee SW, Gilboa E, and Smith C.  Inhibition of HIV-1 with minimal RRE decoys. International Antiviral News. 3:89, 1995.

16. Bohnlein E, Smith C, and Marasco W. Gene therapy for HIV infection. In, HIV: A Practical Approach. IRL Press at Oxford University Press, 1995.

17. Smith C and Sullenger B. AIDS and HIV Infection. In, Molecular and Cell Biology of Human Gene Therapeutics. G Dickson ed., Chapman and Hall, 195-236, 1995.

18. Gilboa E and Smith C. Gene therapy for infectious diseases: The HIV model. Trends in Genetics. 10: 139, 1994.

19. Smith C. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into Hematopoietic Cells: Prospects and issues. Journal of Hematotherapy. 1:155, 1992.