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Welcome to Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology


The Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology was established in 1966 as a joint division of the Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology. There are five faculty with primary appointments in the Division: Curt R. Freed, MD, Division Head; Alberto Costa MD, PhD. Joseph Gal, PhD, Daniel Linseman, PhD, and Wenbo Zhou, PhD.  Faculty with secondary appointments include Richard Dart, MD, PhD who is Professor and Director of the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Kennon Heard, MD, Associate Professor of Surgery and Medicine, Robert Murphy, PhD, Professor of Pharmacology, and Javier Waksman, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine.  Clinical faculty are Jeffrey Brent, MD, Edward Cetaruk, MD, David Gilmore, MD, Michael Kosnett, MD, PhD, and Scott Phillips, MD.

Faculty in the Division have traditionally had extensive teaching responsibilities in the Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology. In Internal Medicine, Division faculty organize and present a 50 lecture course in therapeutics each year for fourth year medical students. The course is the most popular elective in the fourth year, attracting a majority of the class as they prepare for internship.  In Pharmacology, emphasis has been on lecturing to second year medical students as well as to graduate students in Pharmacology, Neuroscience, Human Medical Genetics, and the School of Pharmacy.   At University of Colorado Hospital, Division faculty serve as consulting physicians. The Division created and currently supervises the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Laboratory for University Hospital. The laboratory is directed by Joseph Gal, PhD and performs over 100,000 drug assays per year. 

As researchers, the five core Clinical Pharmacology faculty have been awarded over $1,500,000 per year in external support to fund a variety of projects. Dr. Freed is primarily interested in neurotransplantation for Parkinson's Disease in man and experimental animals and in stem cell therapy. He is Director of the Neurotransplantation Program for Parkinson’s Disease at the University of Colorado, a multidisciplinary Center that combines basic research and clinical activity.  Dr. Costa is an expert on Down Syndrome with research spanning animal models to clinical treatments. Dr. Gal's interest is stereospecific drug analysis and stereoselective drug metabolism.  Dr. Linseman does research on the role of oxidative stress in mitochondrial metabolism.  Dr. Zhou’s research on Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders encompasses a broad range of topics from regulation of gene expression to new ways to reprogram cells to become pluripotent stem cells.