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Stephen P. Cass, MD, MPH



Clinical Office:

1635 N. Aurora Court, 6th Floor
Aurora, CO 80045

Appointments:  720-848-2820

Academic Office:

12631 E. 17th Avenue, B205
Aurora, CO 80045


Phone: 303-724-1950
Fax: 303-724-1961



Hospital Affiliations:

University of Colorado Hospital
Children's Hospital Colorado
Denver Veteran's Administration Medical Center
Denver Health

Clinical Interests:

Ear, hearing and vertigo disorders, surgery for otosclerosis, cochlear implants, acoustic neuroma, and cranial base surgery

Subspecialty Training: Neurotology


Medical School

(1983)  MPH, Health Planning and Administration, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI

(1983)  MD, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI


(1983-1988) Residency, Otolaryngology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

(1984)  Internship, General Surgery, St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI


(1988-1990)  Fellow, Otology-Neurotology, Michigan Ear Institute, Farmington Hills, MI


(1988)  Otolaryngology, American Board of Otolaryngology

(2004)  Neurotology, American Board of Otolaryngology

(2013)  Neurotology, American Board of Otolaryngologyu (re-certified)


(1990)  Nicholas Torok Vestibular Research Award, American Neurotologic Society

(1998 to present)  The Best Doctors in America

(2000, 2009, 2013)  Professor of the Year, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine

(2016, 2017, 2018)  Recgonized for excellence in clinical activities by 5280 Magazine as "Top Neurotologist"

Cass SP, Davidson P, Goshgarian HG: Survival of the vestibular nerve after labyrinthectomy in the cat. Otolaryngol -Head & Neck Surg 101(4):459-466, 1989. Pub Med ID: 2508023


Cass SP, Goshgarian HG: Increased glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in astrocytes within the lateral vestibular nucleus of the cat following labyrinthectomy and vestibular neurectomy. Ann Otol, Rhinol and Laryngol 99(3):221-227, 1990. Pub Med ID: 2178543


Bhansali SA, Cass SP, Benitez JT, Mathog RH: Vestibular effects of chronic perilymph fistula in the Cat: Preliminary Report. Otolaryngol - Head & Neck Surg. 102(6):701-708, 1990. Pub Med ID: 2115657


Cass SP, Goshgarian HG: Vestibular compensation after labyrinthectomy and vestibular neurectomy in cats. Otolaryngol - Head & Neck Surg 104(1):14-19, 1991. Pub Med ID: 1900617


Cass SP, Kartush JM, Graham MD: Comparison of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the postoperative assessment of residual acoustic tumor. Otolaryngol - Head and Neck Surg 104,(2):182-190, 1991. Pub Med ID: 1901146


Cass SP, Kartush JM, Graham MD: Clinical assessment of postural stability following vestibular nerve section. Laryngoscope 101(10):1056-1059, 1991. Pub Med ID: 1921632


Cass SP, Kartush JM, Graham MD: Patterns of vestibular function following vestibular nerve section. Laryngoscope 102(4):388-394, 1992. Pub Med ID: 1556887


Bassiouny M, Hirsch BE, Kelly RH, Kamerer DB, Cass SP: BETA2 transferrin application in otology. Am J Otol 13(6):552-555, 1992. Pub Med ID: 1449183


Weber PC, Cass, SP: The clinical assessment of postural stability. American Journal of Otology 14(6):566-569, November, 1993. Pub Med ID: 8296860


Iwai Y, Sekhar LN, Goel A, Cass SP: Vein graft replacement of the distal vertebral artery. ACTA Neurologic Acta Neurochi 120:81-87, 1993. Pub Med ID: 8434522



Skedros DG, Cass SP, Hirsch BE, Kelly RH: Beta-2 transferrin assay in clinical management of cerebral spinal fluid and perilymphatic fluid leaks. J of Otolaryngol 22(5):341-344, 1993. Pub Med ID: 8283502



Eibling DE, Janecka IP, Snyderman CH, Cass SP: Meta-analysis of outcome in anterior skull base resection for squamous cell and undifferentiated carcinoma. Skull Base Surgery 3(3):123-129, 1993. Pub Med ID: 17170901



Weber PC, Cass SP: Neurotological manifestations of chiari 1 malformation. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 109:853-860, 1993. Pub Med ID: 17233277



Skedros DG, Cass SP, Hirsch BE, Kelly RH: Sources of error in use of beta-2 transferrin analysis for diagnosing perilymphatic and cerebral spinal fluid leaks. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 109:861-864, 1993. Pub Med ID: 8247566



Hirsch BE, Cass SP, Sekhar LN, Wright DC: Translabyrinthine approach to skull base tumors with hearing preservation. The American Journal of Otology 14(6):533-544, November, 1993. Pub Med ID: 8296854



Gold S, Kamerer DB, Hirsch BE, Cass SP. Hypercoagulability in otologic patients. American Journal of Otolaryngology 14(5):327-331, 1993. Pub Med ID: 8238760



Monsell EM, Cass SP, Rybak LP. Therapeutic use of aminoglycoside Meniere's Disease. In Otolaryngologic Clinics of North American, 26(5):737-746, October, 1993. Pub Med ID: 8233486



Cass SP, Sekhar LN, Pomeranz S, Hirsch BE, Snyderman CH: Excision of petroclival tumors by a total petrosectomy approach. American Journal of Otology 15(4):474-484, 1994 Pub Med ID: 8588602


Myerhoff WL, Cass SP, Schwaber MK, Sculerati N, Slattery WH. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss in children. Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgeons 110(6):569-579, June, 1994. Pub Med ID: 8208575



Cass SP, Hirsch BE, Stechison MT. Evolution and advances of the lateral surgical approaches to cranial base neoplasms. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 20:337-361, 1994. Pub Med ID: 7844626



Patel SJ, Sekhar LN, Cass SP, Hirsch BE. Combined approaches for resection of extensive glomus jugulare tumors. J Neurosurg 80:1026-1038, 1994 Pub Med ID: 8189258



Furman JM, Cass SP. A practical work-up for vertigo. Contemporary Internal Medicine, 7(3):24-40, March, 1995. Pub Med ID: 10150339



Carrau RL, Petruzzelli G, Cass SP. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112:501-502, 1995. Pub Med ID: 7870461


Furman JM, Cass SP. Treating Dizziness. Contemporary Internal Medicine 8(1):66-71, January, 1996.
Carrau RL, Petruzzelli G, Cass SP. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112:501-502, 1995. Pub Med ID: 7870461


Furman JM, Cass SP. Treating Dizziness. Contemporary Internal Medicine 8(1):66-71, January, 1996
Cass SP, Redfern MS, Furman JM, DiPasquale JJ. Galvanic-Induced Postural Movements as a Test of Vestibular Function in Humans. The Laryngoscope 106(3):423-430, April, 1996. Pub Med ID: 8614216


Chang CYJ, O'Rourke DK, Cass SP. Update on Skull Base Surgery. Clinics of North America 29(3):467-501, June, 1996. Pub Med ID: 8743345


Cass SP, Borello-France D, Furman JM. Functional Outcome of Vestibular Rehabilitation in Patients with Abnormal Sensory-Organization Testing. The American Journal of Otology 17:581-594, 1996 Pub Med ID: 8841704


Cass SP, Furman JM, Ankerstjerne JKP, Balaban C, Yetiser S, Aydogan B. Migraine-Related Vestibulopathy. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology 106:182-189, 1997. Chosen by YEAR BOOK OF NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSURGERY to be abstracted in the 1999 Year Book.
Whitney SL, Poole JL, Cass SP. A Review of Balance Assessments for Older Adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 55(8),666-671,1998. Pub Med ID: 9739401


Furman JM, Cass SP, Briggs BC. Treatment of Benign Positional Vertigo Using Heels-Over-Head Rotation. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, Laryngology, 107:1046-1053, 1998. Pub Med ID: 9865636



Goldman SA, Siegfried J, Scolieri P, Aydogen LB, Cass SP. The effect of acidic fibroblast growth factor and live yeast cell derivative on tympanic membrane regeneration in a rat model. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 116: 616-621., 1997. Pub Med ID: 9419088


Jian BJ, Cotter LA, Emanuel BA, Cass SP, Yates BJ. Effects of bilateral vestibular lesions on orthostatic tolerance in awake cats. Journal of Applied Physiology 86(5), 1552-1560, 1999 Pub Med ID: 10233117


Sindwani R,Parnes LS, Goebel JA, Cass SP. An Approach to the Vestibular Patient and Driving: A Patient Perspective. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg, Jul;121(1):13-17, 1999. Pub Med ID: 10388869


Chang CYJ, Cass SP. Management of Facial Nerve Injury Due to Temporal Bone Trauma. American Journal of Otology 20:96-114, 1999. Pub Med ID: 9918183


Furman JM, Cass SP. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. New England Journal of Medicine, 341(21):1590-1596, November, 1999. Pub Med ID: 10564690


Nunez RA, Cass SP, Furman JM. Short and Long-term Outcomes of Canalith Repositioning for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery, 122(5):647-652, 2000. Chosen by Editor of Otoloaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery to be offered in full electronically on the JournalÕs web-site. Pub Med ID: 10793340


Yates BJ, Jian BJ, Cotter LA, Cass SP. Responses of Vestibular Nucleus Neurons to Tilt following Chronic Bilateral Removal of Vestibular Inputs. Experimental Brain Research, 130:151-158, 2000. Pub Med ID: 10672468


OÕReilly RC, Goldman SA, Widner SA, Cass SP. Creatting A stable Tympanic Membrane Perforation Using Mitomycin C. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery 124(1): 40-45, 2001. Pub Med ID: 11228450


Scolieri P, Widner SA, Cass SP. An Anatomical Varient of the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery in a Patient with MeniereÕs Disease. The American Journal of Otology 22: 519-525, 2001
Cotter LA, Arendt HE, Jasko JG, Sprango C, Cass SP, Yates BJ. Effects of Postural Changes and Vestibular Lesions on Diaphragm and rectus abdominis Activity in Awake Cats. Journal Applied Physiology 91: 137-144, 2001. Pub Med ID: 11408424


M.J. Holmes, L.A. Cotter, H.E. Arendt, S.P. Cass, and B.J. Yates. Effects of lesions of the caudal cerebellar vermis on cardiovascular regulation in awake cats. Brain Research 938:62-72, 2002. Pub Med ID: 12031536
Anker AR, Ali A, Arendt HE , Cass SP, Cotter LA, Jian BJ, Tamrazi B, and Yates BJ. Use of Electrical Vestibular Stimulation to Alter Genioglossal Muscle Activity in Awake Cats. Journal of Vestibular Research 131Ð8, 2003. Pub Med ID: 14646019


Effects of postural changes and vestibular lesions on genioglossal muscle activity in conscious cats. Journal of Applied Physiology 96: 923Ð930, 2004. Pub Med ID: 14594855


Reilly R, Hirsch B, Bernat S, Poznanovi S, Cass, SP. Ossiculopasty using incus interposition: Hearing results and analysis of the middle ear risk index. Otology and Neurotology 26(5):853-858, 2005. Pub Med ID: 16151328


Poznanovi S, Cass, SP. Short Term Tumor Control and Acute Toxicity after Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Glomus Jugulare Tumors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery. Mar;134(3):437-42, 2006. Pub Med ID: 16500441


T. D. Wilson, L.A. Cotter, J.A. Draper, S.P. Misra, C.D. Rice, S.P. Cass, and B. J. Yates


Effects of Postural Changes and Removal of Vestibular Inputs on Blood Flow to the Head of Conscious Felines. J Appl Physiol 100: 14751482, 2006. Pub Med ID: 16439511


M. Arshian, R.J. Holtje, L.A. Cotter, C.D. Rice, S.P. Cass, and B.J. Yates. Consequences of postural changes and removal of vestibular inputs on the movement of air in and out of the lungs of conscious felines. Journal of Applied Physiology.103: 347-352, 2007. Pub Med ID: 17431091


D.M. Miller, L.A. Cotte, N. J. Gandhi, R.H. Schor, S.P. Cass, N.O. Huff, S.G. Raj, J.A Shulman, and B.J. Yates.. Responses of Caudal Vestibular Nucleus Neurons of Conscious Cats to Rotations in Vertical Planes, Before and After a Bilateral Vestibular Neurectomy. Exp. Brain Res. 188: 175-186, 2008. Pub Med ID: 18368395


N Bhattacharyya, R Baugh, L Orvidas, D Barrs, S Cass, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Benign Paroxysmal Vertigo. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 139:S47-81, 2008.
Cass S, Bhattacharyya N. Response to commentary: Benign paroxysmal position vertigo Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery July 2009 (Vol. 141, Issue 1, Pages 10-11) Pub Med ID: 18973840


K.J. Yavorcik, D.A. Reighard, S.P. Misra, L.A. Cotter, S.P. Cass, T.D. Wilson, B. J. Yates. Effects of Postural Changes and Removal of Vestibular Inputs on Blood Flow to and from the Hindlimb of Conscious Felines. Am. J. Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative, 297: R1777R1784, 2009. Pub Med ID: 19793952

SP Cass, PA Mudd.  Bone-anchored hearing devices: indications, outcomes, and the linear surgical technique. Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 21 (3), 197-206, 2010


Barman, S, M., Sugiyama, Y., Suzuki, T., Cotter, L.A., DeStefino, V.J., Reighard, D.A., Cass, S.P., and Yates, B.J.  Rhythmic activity of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of conscious cats: effect of removal of vestibular inputs. Am. J. Physiol. 301: R937-R946, 2011

Cass SP. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  ACP Smart Medicine. .  January 23, 2015. doi 10.7326/d310
Mattingly JK, Portnuff CDF, Hondorp BM, Cass SP..  Sudden Bilateral Hearing Loss following Cervical and Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs).  Otology and Neurotology, 36(6):961-964, July 2015

Mattingly JK, Green NT, Jenkins, HA, Tollin DJ, Easter JR , Cass SP.  Effects of Skin Thickness on Cochlear Input Signal using Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Implants.  Otology and Neurotology, 36(8):1403-1411, September 2015

Greene NT Mattingly JM, , Jenkins, H, Tollin DJ, Easter JR, Cass SP.  Cochlear implant electrode effect on sound energy transfer within the cochlea during acoustic stimulation.  Otology and Neurotology, 36(9):1554-1561, October 2015
Hall CD, Herdman SJ, Whitney SL, Cass SP, Clendaniel RA, Fife T, Furman JM, ; Goebel J, Shepard NA, ; Woodhouse S.  Vestibular Rehabilitation for Peripheral Vestibular Hypofunction: Clinical Practice Guidelines.  Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, vol 40, April 2016

Banakis Hartl RM, Mattingly JK, Greene NT, Jenkins HA, Cass SP, and Tollin DJ.  A preliminary investigation of the air-bone gap: Changes in intracochlear sound pressure with air- and bone-conducted stimuli after cochlear implantation. Otology and Neurotology 37(9):1291-1299, October 2016


Mattingly JK, Cass SP, Portnuff CD, Hondorp BM.  Response to Colebatch and Rosengren: "Safe Levels of Acoustic Stimulation for Vemps" Comment on "Sudden Bilateral Hearing Loss After Cervical and Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials". Otol Neurotol. 2016 Jan;37(1):118-9. PMID: 26649613


Mattingly, JK, Uhler, K, Cass, SP.  Air-Bone Gaps Contribute to Functional Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implantation.  Otology and Neurology 37(9):1255-1262, October 2016

Greene N, Banakis R, Mattingly JK, Tolin D, Cass, SP.  Intracochlear Pressure Transients during Cochlear Implant Insertion.  Otology and Neurotology 37(10):1541-1548, December 2016

Greene NT, Mattingly JK, Banakis Hartl RM, Jenkins HA, Tollin DJ, Cass SP.  A Comparison of Ipsi and Contralateral Bone Conduction Stimulation.  Ear and Hearing.  Submitted for publication and in review, 2018.


Cass SP, Allen GC, Chan KH. Bone conduction implants in pediatric cholesteatoma management. Proceeding of the 10th International Conference in Cholesteatoma and Ear Surgery.  Submitted 12/2016


Farrell NF, Banakis Hartl RM, Benichoux V, Brown AD, Cass SP, and Tollin DJ.  Intracochlear Measurements of Interaural Time and Level Differences Conveyed by Bilateral Bone Conduction Systems. Otol Neurotol. 2017 Dec; 38(10):1476-1483. PMID:29084088


Alhussaini MA, Mattingly JK, Cass SP.  Anatomical Relationship of the Middle Cranial Fossa Dura to Surface Landmarks of the Temporal Bone. Otol Neurotol. 2017 Oct;38(9):1351-1354. PMID 28796089


Maxwell AK, Banakis Hartl RM, Greene NT, Benichoux V, Mattingly JK, Cass SP, Tollin DJ. Semicircular Canal Pressure Changes During High-intensity Acoustic Stimulation. Otol Neurotol. 2017 Aug;38(7):1043-1051. PMID: 28570420


Chan KH, Gao D, Jensen EL, Allen GC, Cass SP. Complications and parent satisfaction in pediatric osseointegrated bone-conduction hearing implants. Laryngoscope. 2017 Sep;127(9):2165-2170. PMID: 28092097.


Santos-Cortez RLP, Chiong CM, Frank DN, Ryan AF, Giese APJ, Bootpetch Roberts T, Daly KA, Steritz MJ, Szeremeta W, Pedro M, Pine H, Yarza TKL, Scholes MA, Llanes EGDV, Yousaf S, Friedman N, Tantoco MLC, Wine TM, Labra PJ, Benoit J, Ruiz AG, de la Cruz RAR, Greenlee C, Yousaf A, Cardwell J, Nonato RMA, Ray D, Ong KMC, So E, Robertson CE, Dinwiddie J, Lagrana-Villagracia SM; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics (UWCMG), Gubbels SP, Shaikh RS, Cass SP, Einarsdottir E, Lee NR, Schwartz DA, Gloria-Cruz TLI, Bamshad MJ, Yang IV, Kere J, Abes GT, Prager JD, Riazuddin S, Chan AL, Yoon PJ, Nickerson DA, Cutiongco-de la Paz EM, Streubel SO, Reyes-Quintos MRT, Jenkins HA, Mattila P, Chan KH, Mohlke KL, Leal SM, Hafrén L, Chonmaitree T, Sale MM, Ahmed ZM. FUT2 Variants Confer Susceptibility to Familial Otitis Media.   Am J Hum Genet. 2018 Nov 1;103(5):679-690. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.09.010. Epub 2018 Oct 25.  PMID:30401457


Marinelli JP, Cass SP, Mann SE, Haynes DS, Hunter JB, Isaacson B, Sweeney AD, Pelosi S, Willcox TO, O'Connell BP, Rivera M, Lane JI, Carlson ML.  Adenomatous Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Middle Ear: A Multi-institutional Investigation of 32 Cases and Development of a Staging System.  Otol Neurotol. 2018 Sep;39(8):e712-e721.  PMID:30001283


Research Focus

Hearing improvement using cochlear implants and bone anchored hearing devices
Treatment of Cranial base tumors (acoustic neuroma and glomus jugulare)
Vestibular disorders

American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery
American Otologic Society
American Neurotologic Society