It compensates remarkably.
Possibly, but a more common symptom of dehydration is light-headedness, sometime experienced as a head-rush. With dehydration, blood volume and therefore pressure fall, causing these feelings. Usually there is no systemic damage, but that is not true with very severe dehydration.
This is a very large question which we can’t answer fully. The heart has a great capacity to respond to stress by increasing the force, rate and volume of contraction; most of us get tired before our heart’s full capacity is reached. Sometimes, though, especially if coronary arteries are narrowed by atherosclerosis, we function well at rest but not so when stressed; hence the “stress test” where you exercise at increasing intensity on a treadmill while an expert monitors the EKG for signs of electrical conduction disturbances.
Well, we think so that you can fight whatever triggered it, or if you’re smart, run away. It’s just called that; it is a complex “arousal” response involving hormones like adrenalin, also corticosteroids, and a lot of nerve output to heart, muscles, bowels, etc.
“Terminal” just means “at the end,” like a railway terminal is at the end of the line (otherwise it’s a Station). So a terminal bronchiole is the last of the 12-16 branching bronchioles before we get to the air sacs or alveoli.
It doesn’t have much choice. Blood enters the heart in the right atrium, which then pushes it into the right ventricle. When that contracts, there’s only one way out: through the pulmonary valve to the lungs. Then the blood returns, freshly oxygenated, to the left side of the heart.
Everything that makes you pee more than the average amount is a diuretic. So, a big glass of water is, because you will have to get rid of most of that volume unless you are very dehydrated. Caffeine is a mild diuretic. It’s not clear whether alcohol is, or it’s just the associated volume of water. Not much chance to overdo this, but a diuretic drug, that affects normal processes in the kidney tubules, must be treated with caution.
It would be lonely? Not sure why two, but it’s a comfort to know that if one gets damages you have another that can do essentially the work of two.
All of those things can. Probably the major cause is chronic uncontrolled high blood pressure.
From the Cleveland Clinic: “In some cases, it seems reasonable to recommend this product as an adjunct to conventional antihypertensive therapy. Larger, well-designed clinical trials of coenzyme Q10’s antihypertensive effects on specific clinical end points such as the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction are needed to define its true therapeutic value.” There seem to be no convincing studies yet. It has relatively few side effects and is cheap.
Lastly, if we were to use Omega supplements, what is the difference between Omega 3, Omega 6, and Omega 9 ... and should we consider them all?
Answer: Aha, we have a lecture coming up on Pharmacology, so let’s ask the expert then!
Depends on the kind of kidney stones, so listen to your doctor’s advice and do some reading of your own, then ask him or her any specific questions you have.
It has excellent anti-coagulant properties (thus a side effect is stomach bleeding, when small damage to the lining does not clot well), and not clotting is just what you want when there seems to be clotting going on that is blocking a coronary artery.
When heart muscle is damaged, internal contents leak out of the cells. Some of these are heart-specific enzymes, so we can tell that they were released from recently-damaged heart muscle and not, for example, skeletal muscle or liver. A very useful technique.
The brain gets information constantly about oxygen and CO2 concentration in the blood, as well as its pH (acidity). It then sends messages to heart and lungs to adjust according to needs. It is fabulously complicated, and you don’t even have to think about it!
The idea is that when the kidneys are failing, end-products accumulate in the blood because they are not filtered or reabsorbed properly; and some of these can become toxic at high concentrations. Dialysis uses a membrane that passes small end-products without losing important larger molecules. It can be done with artificial membranes using a dialysis machine, through which some of the patient’s blood is pumped; or totally internally, by placing dialysis solution into the patient’s peritoneum (the abdominal cavity) and then after a while removing it with the dialyses end-products.
A number of causes. Like most diseases, it involves genetics, environment, and bad luck.
The glucose that is in excess of normal is filtered in the kidney and not reabsorbed; to get rid of that amount of sugar, the body is obligated to add to the urine a corresponding amount of water. So, paradoxically, a diabetic (untreated) can drink more and more Cokes and get drier and drier.
Thank you for pointing this out. The Colorado program is copied all over the world now.
Ah, youth. There are several possibilities. One is that you don’t sleep as well as you once did; many of us, when we wake up, don’t really need to go but it occurs to us, so we go. Then there is always the possibility that you are an early diabetic; that could be quickly excluded (or not) by your doctor. Finally, if the prostate is becoming enlarged, often the bladder is not completely emptied when we go, and that means we will need to go again soon. All that can be relatively easily worked out with a doctor’s visit.
Question:Amazingly well. The liver still makes bile that trickles into the intestine to help digestion. The gall bladder isn’t essential; some think it’s mostly an overflow reservoir.To my knowledge pigs have kidneys that are nearly the same in size and complexity as human kidneys. In several artificial organ regrowth labs, technicians and scientists have "grown" organs. In particular kidneys. They do this by removing all of the living and dead cells of the organ, leaving the scientist with the extracellular matrix of the organ. Then they take stem cells from the patient, place the stem cells on the "skeleton organ" and incubate the organ for X amount of time. Now for patients that are experiencing renal problems why hasn't the medical field exploited this? Keep in mind using this method patients will not reject the organ and ergo, no need for anti-rejection medication.
This is a good idea before its time. Organ replacement of this type has been done on an experimental basis with simpler organs, but the kidney has many different cell types with, very likely, different stem cells, and in some cases these are known to have to interact critically with one another. So we just don’t have enough information on all the required stem cells yet.