Many historians credit Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865), a Hungarian physician described as the "savior of mothers." In those times infections of mothers who delivered babies in hospitals were very prevalent, and 10-35% of all mothers died after childbirth! He made his doctors and students in Vienna wash their hands in disinfectants between patients, something that had never been done before; and the death rate fell to just 1 or 2%. Other doctors ridiculed him at first, and some think this made him so depressed that he eventually died in a mental hospital, only 47 years old. Year later, Pasteur published his germ theory, and it was understood how disease spread. Gradually hospitals moved to one-time clothing, gloves, masks, sterile instrumentsÖa gradual process, still changing today.
The digestive system has nerves from the autonomic (think "automatic") nervous system that control its movement and blood distribution. This same system is very involved in our responses to emotions: things that make us breath fast, or shake with fear, or even faint. So it is not surprising that even mild emotional stresses can mean, say, that some will get diarrhea, and others become constipated. Some eat when anxious, some can't eat at all! Relax, and it starts working again.
In most cases, yes; they have been designed to do so.
Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine, not the colon (large intestine) so it is not too much of a problem.
Not usually; the kidney may filter more, but it is very good at reabsorbing the water the body needs in spite of that.
It keeps restaurants in business! In rodents, who can't vomit, anything that they eat that makes them sick is very dangerous, and they learn from a single experience never to eat anything that tastes like that again. We are almost as smart.
There are over-the-counter remedies that decrease acid production, they are fairly effective and safe. Avoiding foods that you have found cause symptoms is a good idea, too. For many people that includes coffee and alcohol. Don't smoke, it increases stomach acid. Moderate use of antacids is OK, but doing it for too long can change your body composition and make you feel bad. Sleeping on the left side keeps food in the stomach better than on the right; some have to elevate the head of the bed for the same reason. Finally, if people are overweight, losing weight is beneficial as excess abdominal fat presses on the stomach, forcing its contents upwards.
Probably, taking insulin isn't enough like natural insulin secretion, so when you try to diet the body holds on fast to those carbs and fats, in case it will soon need them.
The calories thing is just physics; it can't be any other way. But people can vary in the efficiency of digestion, so one may extract more calories from food. They can also differ if efficiency of utilization, so that, for example, a poorly-controlled diabetic will lose sugar in the urine, and can lose weight even on an adequate diet. If your metabolism is active (exercising, for example) you will burn more calories and therefore lose weight if on a constant dietary intake.
Calories in equals calories burned to stay constant. Think of that poor guy who lived only on Big Macs for a month; he gained a ton. There are lower calories food that aren't good for you, too! And remember, 1 gram of fat is 9 calories; one gram of carb or protein is 4 calories. Recently, studies have shown that those annoying people who seem to eat anything but never gain an ounce burn most of it off by constant fidgeting.
Aerobic exercise has been shown to increase blood levels of “peptide YY” which suppresses appetite, and decrease “ghrelin” which stimulates appetite. So for a while, you’re not hungry; a nice bonus. Anaerobic exercise (weight lifting) doesn’t seem to do this.
No, those 2 subjects are not required to apply to med school. The standard prerequisites are: At least one year of general biology; at least one year of calculus (Calculus I and II); at least one year of general (inorganic) chemistry with lab; at least one year of organic chemistry with lab; at least one year of physics with lab. Of course if you do take courses like anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology or biochemistry, it may make med school a bit easier for you.
In fact, if you have one kidney, it will be large; maybe one and a half times a normal kidney. People who live in areas where the water is salty have big kidneys, and are perfectly healthy.
For something like this, please consult your health care providers.
No, because although there is a genetic component to cancer susceptibility, it is relatively minor, and due to the contributions of many genes. Most cancer is caused by something in the environment and by individual behavior (such as choosing to smoke.)
Oh, there are many researchers and pharmaceutical companies that would love to know the answer to that one! Perhaps it could be. Some things like that have actually been done in mice and rats by genetic manipulations, but the results are nowhere near ready for human use, as we must be sure drugs (that would be used mostly in relatively healthy people) are safe for the long run.
The best thing to do for someone interested in body donation is to direct them to our Colorado State Anatomical website below or have them call 303-724-2410. Our students and doctors would be grateful; you can read what one of the wrote on the website too.
By removing gluten from your diet you can completely reverse the damage to the villi. The trick is to really get gluten out of the diet since it’s found in so many places....even in some lip balms!
It does not look like one can “get over” Celiac disease, and begin to eat gluten-containing foods again. The predisposition to the condition has a very high genetic component. Until someone can invent a therapy that would specifically eliminate the response to gluten antigens (it is possible, but not yet accomplished) eliminating gluten is the only way.