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Clifton M. Carey

Professor, Director of Translational Research

Dr. Clifton M. Carey

Department of Craniofacial Biology
12800 E 19th Avenue
Mail Stop 8310
Aurora, CO 80045

Phone: 303-724-1046
Fax: 303-724-1945


  • PhD, Analytical Chemistry, American University
  • MS, Biology, East Carolina University
  • BA, Chemistry & Biology, St. Andrews Presbyterian College


  • Academy of Operative Dentistry
  • American Association of Dental Research (AADR)
  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • European Organisation for Caries Research (ORCA)
  • International Association of Dental Research (IADR)
  • Washington DC Professional Chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma (AXE)

 Leadership Roles

  • President, Alpha Chi Sigma Beta Upsilon Chapter 1988-1990
  • President Washington DC section of the AADR 2000 - 2002
  • Counselor, Washington DC Section of AADR 2001 - 2011
  • Board of Editors Journal of Research NIST 2000 - 2011
  • ANSI Chairman: bleaching, flouride analysis, toothpastes, oral rinses, denture adhesives, and fluoride varnishes
  • ISO TC106 – Dentistry:
    • Vice Chair of the US delegation on Dental Products (SC7
    • Convener of the Work Group for Analysis of Oral Care Products
      • US expert on:
        • Toothpaste
        • Oral Rinses
        • Denture Adhesives
        • Fluoride Varnishes
        • Dental Bleaching
  • President, Colorado Section of AADR 2014 - present

 Research Interests

  • Dental Bleaching
  • Caries Detection
  • Dental Caries
  • Early Childhood Caries
  • Dental Erosion and Abrasion
  • Remineralization - Calcium and Phosphates
  • Fluoride to Prevent Caries
  • Flouride Alternatives to Prevent Caries
  • Dentifrices, Fluoride Varnish, Oral Rinses
  • Biofilms - Related to Caries
  • Dental Standards

 Recent Publications


MEGREMIS, S and CM CAREY (2006): Corrosion and Tarnish of Dental Alloys in Corrosion: Environments and Industries, Volume 13C, ASM Handbook, Materials Park, Ohio, pp 891-921.
Lamberton, JA, Oesterle LJ, Shellhart WC, Newman SM, Harrell RE, Tillis T, Singh N, Carey CM (2016): Comparison of pain perception during miniscrew placement in orthodontic patients with a visual analog scale survey between compound topical and needle-injected anesthetics: A crossover, prospective, randomized clinical trial, Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 149(1):15-23.
Carey CM (2015):  Plasticizer Effects in the PVC Membrane of the Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode, Chemosensors, 3(4):284-294.
Carey CM, Holahan EC, Schmuck BD (2014): Analysis of 1-minute Potentially Available Fluoride from Dentifrice, J Res NIST 219:602-609.
Schwendicke F, Felstehausen G, Carey CM, Dörfer C (2014): Comparison of four methods to assess erosive substance loss of dentin, Plos One 9(9):1-6.
Carey CM (2014): Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries, The Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice, NIHMS 567939
Carey CM (2014): Tooth Whitening: What We Now Know, The Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice, NIHMS 567941

Carey CM, Coleman SS (2014): Method for the Analysis of Total Fluoride in Fluoride-Releasing Dental Varnishes, Caries Res 48(4):306-311 (DOI: 10.1159/000355613)
Schmuck BD and CM Carey (2010): Improved Contact X-Ray Microradiographic Method to Measure Mineral Density of Hard Dental Tissues, J Res NIST 115(2):75-83.
Bowen RL, Carey CM, Flynn KM, Guttman CM (2009): Synthesis of Polymerizable Cyclodextrin Derivatives for Use in Adhesion-Promoting Monomer Formulations, J Res NIST 114(1):1-9.
Bowen RL, Schumacher GE, Giuseppetti AA, Guttman CM, Carey CM (2009): Adhesive Bonding to Dentin Improved by Polymerizable Cyclodextrin Derivatives, J Res NIST 114(1):10-20.
Vogel GL, Chow LC, Carey CM (2008): Calcium Pre-Rinse Greatly Increases Overnight Salivary Fluoride after a 228 ppm Fluoride Rinse, Caries Res 42(5):401-404.
Vogel GL, Schumacher GE, Chow LC, Takagi S, Carey CM (2008): Ca pre-rinse greatly increases plaque and plaque fluid F, J Dent Res 87(5):466-469.
Saif S, Carey CM, Tordik PA, McClanahan SB (2008): Effect of irrigants and cementum injury on diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules, J Endo 34(1):50-52.
Vogel GL, Chow LC, Carey CM, Schumacher GE, Takagi S (2006): "Effect of a Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After a 228-Ppm Fluoride Rinse," Caries Res 40(2):178-180.
Vogel GL, Shim D, Schumacher GE, Carey CM, Chow LC, Takagi S (2005): "Salivary Fluoride from Fluoride Dentifrices or Rinses After Use of a Calcium Pre-Rinse or Calcium Dentifrice," Caries Res (5):449-454.
Eichmiller FC, Eidelman NE, Carey CM (2005): Controlling the fluoride dosage in a patient with compromised salivary function, J Am Dent Assoc 136(1):67-70.
Carey CM, Spencer M, Gove RJ, Eichmiller FC (2003): Fluoride Release from a Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement In a Continuous Flow System: Effect of pH, J Dent Res 82(10):829-832.
Carey CM, Vogel GL (2000): Measurement of Calcium Activity in Oral Fluids by Ion Selective Electrode: Method Evaluation and Simplified Calculation of Ion Activity Products, J Res Nat Inst Stand Technol 105(2):267-273.
Chow LC, Takagi S, Carey CM, Sieck BS (2000): Remineralization Effects of a Two-solution Fluoride Mouth Rinse-An in situ Study, J Dent Res 79(4):991-995.
Vogel GL, Zhang Z, Chow LC, Carey CM, Schumacher GE, Banting D (2000): Effect of in vitro Acidification on Plaque Fluid Composition With and Without a NaF or Controlled Release Fluoride Rinse, J Dent Res 79(4):983-990.
Vogel GL, Zhang Z, Carey CM, Ly A, Chow LC, Proskin HM (2000): Composition of Plaque and Saliva Following Use of " tricalcium Phosphate containing Chewing Gum and Subsequent Sucrose Challenge, J Dent Res, 79(1):58-62.
Vogel GL, Zhang Z, Carey CM, Ly A, Chow LC, Proskin HM (1998): Composition of Plaque and Saliva Following a Sucrose Challenge and Use of an " tricalcium Phosphate containing Chewing Gum, J Dent Res, 77(3):518-524.
Tomazic BB, Chow LC, Carey CM, Shapiro AJ (1997): An in vitro Diffusion Model for the Study of Calcification of Bovine Pericardium Tissue, J Pharm Sci, 86(12)1432 1438.
Vogel GL, Mao Y, Carey CM, Chow LC (1997): Increased Overnight Fluoride Concentrations in Saliva, Plaque, and Plaque Fluid after a Novel Two solution Rinse, J Dent Res, 76(3):761 767.
Vogel GL, Mao Y, Carey CM, Chow LC (1997): Changes in the Permselectivity of Human Teeth during Caries Attack, J Dent Res, 76(2):673 681.
Rose KJ, Carey CM (1995): Intensive Swimming: Can It Affect Your Patient's Smile, JADA, 126:1402 1406.
Carey CM, Riggan WB (1994): Cyclic Polyamine Ionophore for Use in a Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode, Anal Chem, 66(21):3587 3591.
Carey CM (1993): Phosphate Selective Composition and Electrode, U.S. Patent No. 5,240,573, August 31, 1993.
Carey CM (1993): Phosphate Selective Composition and Electrode, U.S. Patent No. 5,180,481, January 19, 1993.
Vogel GL, Carey CM, Ekstrand J (1992): Distribution of Fluoride in Saliva and Plaque Fluid after a 0.048 mol/L NaF Rinse, J Dent Res, 71:1553 1557.
Vogel GL, Mao Y, Carey CM, Chow LC, Takagi S (1992): In vivo Fluoride Concentrations Measured for Two Hours After a NaF or a Novel Two Solution Rinse, J Dent Res, 71:448 452.
Carey CM, Vogel GL, Chow LC (1991): Permselectivity of Sound and Carious Human Dental Enamel as Measured by Membrane Potential, J Dent Res 70:1479 1485.
Gregory TM, Chow LC, Carey CM (1991): A Mathematical Model for Dental Caries: A Coupled Dissolution Diffusion Process, J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol 96:593 604.
Vogel GL, Carey CM, Chow LC, Ekstrand J (1990): Fluoride Analysis in Nanoliter and Microliter size Fluid Samples, J Dent Res 69(Spec Iss):522 528.
Vogel GL, Carey CM, Chow LC, Tatevossian A (1990): Micro analysis of Plaque Fluid from Single site Fasted Plaque, J Dent Res 69:1316 1323.
Carey CM, Chow LC, Tatevossian A, Vogel GL (1988): Extracellular Potassium Concentrations in Human Dental Plaque Fluid Recovered from Single Sites, Arch Oral Biol 33:493 498.
Carey CM, Gregory TM, Tatevossian A, Vogel GL (1988): The Buffer Capacity of Single Site, Resting Human Dental Plaque Fluid, Arch Oral Biol 33:487 492.
Carey CM, Vogel GL, Chow LC (1988): The Determination of Extracellular Fluid Volume in Whole Dental Plaque Using Potassium or Chloride selective Micro electrodes, J Dent Res 67:866 869.
Vogel GL, Carey CM, Chow LC, Gregory TM, Brown WE (1988): Micro Analysis of Mineral Saturation within Enamel During Lactic Acid Demineralization, J Dent Res 67:1172 1180.
Carey CM, Tatevossian A, Vogel GL (1987): The Rapid Determination of Extracellular Potassium Concentrations in Whole Human Dental Plaque and Plaque Fluid, J Dent Res 66:1516 1517.
Vogel GL, Carey CM, Chow LC, Gregory TM, Brown WE (1987): Ultramicro Analysis of the Fluid in Enamel During in vitro Caries Attack by Hydrochloric Acid, Caries Res 21:310 325
Vogel GL, Carey CM, Chow LC, Brown WE (1987): Micro electrode Techniques for the Analysis of Oral Fluids, J Dent Res 66:1691 1697.
Carey CM, Gregory TM, Rupp NW, Tatevossian A, Vogel GL (1986): The Driving Forces in Human Dental Plaque Fluid for Demineralisation and Remineralisation of Enamel Mineral, In: Factors Relating to Demineralisation and Remineralisation of the Teeth, S. A. Leach, Ed., Oxford IRL Press Ltd., pp. 163 173.

 Ongoing Research

R01 DE021391, Carey (PI)
NIH/NIDCR (09/15/2010 – 02/29/2016)

“Effects of Biofilm Activities and Dental Resin Composite Compositions on the Development of Secondary Caries”

Overall goal is to understand the physical, chemical and biological factors that determine the length of time a restoration lasts. With this understanding, we will develop more stable resin-based composites and methods to prevent the decay that limits the success of composite restorations. We are studying the effects of biofilm activity and dental resin composite compositions on the development of secondary caries. We are using a bioreactor model that utilizes conditions found in the oral environment to understand the role of microbial biofilms, salivary pellicles, and cyclic loading in the processes of secondary caries formation. We hypothesize that major contributors to defects at restoration margins include: interfacial stresses from contractions induced by polymerization shrinkage of resins, salivary esterases, acidogenic microbe-generated biofilms, and deformations from cyclic loading and oral thermal fluctuations. These can lead to subsequent staining, secondary caries, fractures, or other problems


 Completed Research Projects

R01 DE17983, Carey (PI)
NIH/NIDCR (04/01/2008 – 03/31/2012)
“Dental Restoration Failure Analysis” the overall goal of this project was to establish standard methods that can be used to estimate lifetime of use for new dental materials for dental restorations. This will be accomplished through determining the critical failure-related properties, including edge chipping and toughness by SCF (surface crack in flexure) if possible. We are building a library of failed dental restorations with accompanying fractographic analyses. Finally, we are developing an instructional package be prepared for use in dental schools and conducting an annual hands-on workshop to disseminate the techniques and information developed in this project.
R01 DE14707, Carey (PI)
NIH/NIDCR (03/15/2004 – 01/31/2011)
“Fluoride Requirements for Therapeutic Efficacy” This project established the minimum concentration of fluoride needed to prevent enamel and root caries. This was accomplished through several different models including the in vitro continuous flow model to optimize the amount of fluoride that is needed to prevent enamel caries when there is a steady, low concentration of fluoride at all times and when multiple boluses are passed by enamel and dentin samples. The studies included the assessment of possible anticaries agents including proteins or other permselective macromolecules adsorbed on the surfaces of the enamel or root dentin.
California Raisin Marketing Board, Carey (PI)
CRMB (09/01/2006 – 12/07/2007)
“Assessment of Carious Potential for Raisins” The goal of this project was to establish cariogenic potential of raisins utilizing a model system that included human teeth, S. mutans, and raisin juice. Comparisons with other common foods and beverages were included in this assessment to establish the relative degree of cariogenicity. 7

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