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​Text Messaging Bibliography

Systematic Reviews

Cole-Lewis H, Kershaw T. Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management. Epidemiol Rev. 2010;32:56-69. PM:20354039
This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. 

Deglise C, Suggs LS, Odermatt P. Short message service (SMS) applications for disease prevention in developing countries. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14:e3. PM:22262730
The objective of this study was to examine SMS-supported interventions for prevention of communicable and noncommunicable diseases in developing countries. It assessed the effectiveness of SMS-based interventions and identified drivers and inhibitors to adoption.

Fjeldsoe BS, Marshall AL, Miller YD. Behavior change interventions delivered by mobile telephone short-message service. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36:165-173. PM:19135907
This review analyzes the application of SMS for delivering health behavior change interventions to establish what can be learned from research conducted to date and make recommendations for future research. SMS-delivered interventions have positive short-term behavioral outcomes.

Holtz B, Lauckner C. Diabetes Management via Mobile Phones: A Systematic Review. Telemed J E Health. 2012;18:175-184. PM:22356525
This study sought to examine the types of mobile phone-based interventions implemented among people with diabetes and the potential effect of these interventions on patient outcomes.

Horvath T, Azman H, Kennedy GE, Rutherford GW. Mobile phone text messaging for promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;3:CD009756. PM:22419345
The objective of the study was to determine whether mobile phone text-messaging is efficacious in enhancing adherence to ART in patients with HIV infection. The study found that there is high-quality evidence from the two RCTs that mobile phone text-messaging at weekly intervals is efficacious in enhancing adherence to ART, compared to standard care.

Krishna S, Boren SA. Diabetes self-management care via cell phone: a systematic review. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2:509-517. PM:19885219
The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence on the impact of cell phone interventions for persons with diabetes and/or obesity in improving health outcomes and/or processes of care for persons with diabetes and/or obesity. Providing care and support with cell phones and text message interventions can improve clinically relevant diabetes-related health outcomes by increasing knowledge and self-efficacy to carry out self-management behaviors.

Krishna S, Boren SA, Balas EA. Healthcare via cell phones: a systematic review. Telemed J E Health. 2009;15:231-240. PM:19382860
We systematically reviewed published studies to evaluate the contribution of cell phones and text messaging in improving the process and outcomes of care.

Lau PW, Lau EY, Wong dP, Ransdell L. A systematic review of information and communication technology-based interventions for promoting physical activity behavior change in children and adolescents. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13:e48. PM:21749967
The present review systematically evaluated the efficacy and methodological quality of ICT-based interventions that applied Internet and/or SMS as a delivery mode for PA behavior change in children and adolescents based on the evidence of randomized controlled trials during the past 12 years (1997-2009)

Lim MS, Hocking JS, Hellard ME, Aitken CK. SMS STI: a review of the uses of mobile phone text messaging in sexual health. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:287-290. PM:18482956
This paper reviews the current published and grey literature and discusses applications of SMS in sexual health and the evidence base for their effectiveness 

Militello LK, Kelly SA, Melnyk BM. Systematic review of text-messaging interventions to promote healthy behaviors in pediatric and adolescent populations: implications for clinical practice and research. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2012;9:66-77. PM:22268959
The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence using text messaging as a tool to deliver healthy lifestyle behavior intervention programs in pediatric and adolescent populations. 

Vervloet M, Linn AJ, van Weert JC, de Bakker DH, Bouvy ML, van DL. The effectiveness of interventions using electronic reminders to improve adherence to chronic medication: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012. PM:22534082
This review examines the effectiveness of interventions using reminders in improving patients’ adherence to chronic medication. The review providers evidence for the short-term effectiveness of electronic reminders, especially SMS.

Wei J, Hollin I, Kachnowski S. A review of the use of mobile phone text messaging in clinical and healthy behaviour interventions. J Telemed Telecare. 2011;17:41-48. PM:21097565
This article reviews the literature on the use of text messaging for clinical and healthy behavior interventions.

Whittaker R, Borland R, Bullen C, Lin RB, McRobbie H, Rodgers A. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;CD006611. PM:19821377
Systematic review to determine whether mobile phone-based interventions are effective at helping people quit smoking. Short term results are possible but the current evidence shows no effect on long-term outcomes.

General Inform​ation

Adler, R. (2007). Health care unplugged: The evolving role of wireless technology. California HealthCare Foundation. Retrieved from

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Social media guidelines and best practices. Retrieved from 

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). The Health Communicator’s Social Media Toolkit. Retrieved from

Fogg, BJ, Adler, R. (2009). Texting 4 health: A simple, powerful way to change lives. Stanford University.

Frontline SMS, Text to Change. Communications for change: How to use text messaging as an effective behavior change campaigning tool. Retrieved from

Labrique, et al., H pe for mHealth: More “y” or “o” on the horizon? Int. J. Med. Inform. (2012). Retrieved from

Loudon, Melissa. (2009). How to set up an SMS system. Retrieved from

Loudon, Melissa. (2009). Mobile phones for data collection. Retrieved from (2011). Lessons from mHealth projects: The tech is the easy part. Retrieved from

PLOS Medicine Editors (2013) A Reality Checkpoint for Mobile Health: Three Challenges to Overcome. PLoS Med 10(2): e1001395. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001395. Retrieved from

Schweitzer, J., Synowiec, C., Results for Development Institute. (2010). The Economics of eHealth. mHealth Alliance. Retrieved from

Umapathy, S., G.A. O’Sullivan, and S. Rahaim. (2012). mBCC Field Guide: A Resource for Developing Mobile Behavior Change Communication Programs. Abt Associates Inc. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Text4Health Task Force. Health Text Messaging Recommendations to the Secretary. Retrieved from

Whittaker, R. (2012). Issues in mHealth: Findings from key informant interviews. Journal of Medicine Internet Res., 14(5):e129 Retrieved from


Federal Trade Commission Bureau of Consumer Protection.  CAN-SPAM Act: A compliance guide for Business. (2009). Retrieved from

Karasz, H., Elden, A., Bogan, S. (2013). Text Messaging to Communicate With Public Health Audiences: How the HIPAA Security Rule Affects Practice. American Journal of Public Health, 103(4):999-1005. Retrieved from>

Merrill, M. (2011).  Five steps docs can take to avoid ‘social media missteps’. Retrieved from Privacy and Security. mHIMSS roadmap. Retrieved from

Stein, Benjamin. Mobile Commons. (2012). HIPAA & text messaging security white paper. Retrieved from

Mobile Commons. (2012). HIPAA and Text Messaging Security Whitepaper. Retrieved from

TigerText pro. Mobile Communication in a HIPAA-Compliant Environment. White Paper. Retrieved from>

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Standards for privacy of individually identifiable health information. Retrieved from

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). Summary of HIPAA. Retrieved from

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). HIPAA security rule. Retrieved from

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). HITECH Act Enforcement Interim Final Rule. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Guidance on IRB Approval of Research Retrieved from

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2013). Overview of Device Regulation Retrieved from

Technical, Set-up, an​d Cost Information

Common short code administration website:

Krarasz, H., Bogan, S. (2012). Investing in a text messaging system: A comparison of three solutions. Retrieved from a href="">

 Mehta, V. Healthy-TXT. Text messaging in health care: Improving outcomes. Changing behavior. Saving money. Retrieved from 

Movius. (2008). Mobile instant messaging: Delivering the next ‘must have’ application. White paper. Retrieved from

Mobile Marketing Association Industry Directory:

Developer’s Home. (2013). Short Message Service / SMS Tutorial. retrieved from

Seattle and King County Public Health. (2011). Considerations when selecting a text messaging vendor. Retrieved from

Seattle and King County Public Health. (2011). Should you be your own SMS vendor? Retrieved from>

Seattle King County Public Health. Life of a text message. (2012). Retrieved from

Top Ten Reviews. (2013). Best Text Message Marketing Service Comparisons and Reviews. Retrieved from

Designing Health Text Message​ Campaigns

Atkin C. Theory and principles of media health campaigns. In: Rice R, and Atkins C. (Eds.) Public Communication Campaigns. 3rd Edition. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks CA. Ch 3.

Finnegan J., Viswanath K. Communication theory and health behavior change. Ch 16  [Glanz]

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Guide to Writing for Social Media. Retrieved from

Hawkins, R. P., Kreuter, M., Resnicow, K., Fishbein, M. & Dijkstra, A. (2008). Understanding tailoring in communicating about health. Health Education Research, 23(3), 454-466. Retrieved from Planning for mHealth for BCC: Questions to ask. mHealth Toolkit by Knowledge 4 Health. Retrieved from

Keller, P. A. & Lehmann, D. R. (2008). Designing effective health communications: A meta-analysis. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 27(2), 1-26. (abstract only) Retrieved from

Petty R., Barden J., Wheeler S. (2009). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion. DiClemente, R, Crosby R., Kegeler M. (Eds.) Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research. 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Wiley. Ch 7. 

Rothman A., Bartels R., Wlaschin J., Salovey P. (2006). The strategic use of gain and loss framed messages to promote health behavior: how theory can inform practice. Journal of Communication, 56:S202-S220.

Text Messaging in Global H​ealth

Gold, J., Andrews, H., Appleford, G., Ramanantsoa, B., Hanitriniaina, O., Deiparine, R., Corby, N. ((2012). Using mobile phone text messages (SMS) to collect health service data: Lessons learned from social franchises in Kenya, Madagascar, and the Philippines. Journal of health informatics in developing countries (6) p. 467-479. Retrieved from

Gurman, T.A., Rubin, S.E., Roess, A.A. (2012) Effectiveness of mHealth behavior change communication interventions in developing countries: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Health Communicaiton, (17), 82-104

Interactive Research and Development. mHealth to improve TB care. (2012). Retrieved from

Mechael, P., Batavia, H., Kaonga, N., Searle, S., Kwan, A., Goldberger, A., Fu, L., & Ossman, J. Earth Institute, Columbia University and mHealth Alliance. (2010). Barriers and gaps affecting mHealth in low and middle income countries: policy white paper. Retrieved from

Philbrick, W., mHealth Alliance, UN Foundation, (2012). Leveraging mobile technologies to promote maternal and newborn health: The current landscape & opportunities for advancement in low-resource settings. Retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2011). mHealth: New horizons for health through mobile technologyies: second global survey on eHealth. Global Observatory for eHealth Series (vol. 3). Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from