My group is interested in the fetal complications of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR affects 4-8% of all pregnancies and in the short term increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. IUGR also results in metabolic and developmental adaptations which set up an individual for long term health problems including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, and diabetes; this is known as the Fetal Origins of Adult Disease Hypothesis. Our overall goal is to define the mechanisms responsible for these adverse outcomes. In order to accomplish this we have numerous ongoing protocols which range in nature from in vivo physiological studies to in vitro cellular and molecular experiments. The specific organ systems I am currently studying include the pancreatic beta-cells which secrete insulin (the dominant fetal growth hormone). We also are testing the developmental and metabolic consequences of IUGR on fetal lungs, liver, brain, kidneys, and muscle. In conjunction with defining the developmental consequences of IUGR we are testing the ability of fetal interventions to reverse these adverse consequences with the ultimate goal of designing interventions to treat IUGR and improve fetal growth.