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Liver Transplantation


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Conceptually, liver transplantation is simple: bad liver comes out, new liver goes in. In reality, it remains one of the most complex and challenging operations performed today.

Remarkably, this operation is still in its relative childhood (twenty years ago, it was still considered experimental by many healthcare systems and providers), but it has quickly evolved into a life-saving standard of care for patients with end-stage liver disease.

About the liver

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body. It is responsible for the synthesis of many important components necessary for the body’s normal function. In addition, the majority of the lower body’s blood returns to the heart through the liver via the portal vein or the inferior vena cava (see diagram below).

Reasons for this surgery

Liver transplant is the treatment of choice for any acute or chronic liver condition that progresses to irreversible liver dysfunction. It is most commonly performed for liver diseases that lead to scarring or cirrhosis of the liver. In select cases of primary liver and bile-duct cancer, transplantation it is the only chance for cure.

Why choose University of Colorado Hospital?

The first successful liver transplant was performed here at University of Colorado Hospital (then called Colorado General Hospital) in 1963 by Dr. Thomas Starzl. Since that time, significant improvements in immunosuppression have made liver transplant a safe and effective treatment for end-stage liver disease and selected liver and bile-duct cancers.

Igal Kam, MD

Dr. Igal Kam, Chief of Transplant Surgery

Over the last 25 years, under the leadership of Dr. Igal Kam, our team has performed over 1,700 liver transplants, with a current rate of nearly 100 annually. This high volume translates into results that place us among the elite centers in the United States.

It takes a large support system for a successful liver transplant program. At University of Colorado Hospital, we have a team of specialized hepatologists, anesthesiologists,  interventional radiologists, social workers, and coordinators who all lend support to the transplant surgeons who perform the procedure.

Details on the procedure

The operation requires removal of the diseased liver, which is then replaced with a healthy donor liver. Most transplants can be performed through a limited abdominal incision that extends from the sternum under the right ribs. In the context of advanced cirrhosis, removal of the diseased liver demands careful attention to enlarged veins that result from portal hypertension.

During transplantation, the liver is dissected free of its surrounding connections, the blood flow into and out of the liver is isolated and suspended, and the liver is removed in its entirety. During a short period of time, the body has no functional liver. (This is known as the anhepatic phase of the operation.) The new liver is sewn in, and all the major blood vessels are reconnected. After blood flow is reestablished, the new bile duct is reconnected, and the new liver is given time to begin functioning.

The operation is a major endeavor. Typical operating times range from 4-6 hours but can extend much longer depending on the complexity of the case and the condition of the patient. Most patients stay in the hospital for 7-10 days after the operation, then transition to outpatient care. Recovery times can also vary greatly based on patient characteristics and potential complications.

The experience of the liver transplant team at the University of Colorado is unparalleled in the entire Rocky Mountain region. We continue to provide innovative care and excellent results for these most complex surgical patients.

Solid organs

In human anatomy, solid organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys are distinguished from organs that are hollow or tube-like (stomach, intestines), organs that contain fluid-filled cavities (brain), and the organ that surrounds the entire body (the skin).