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Nancy F. Krebs, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Nancy F. Krebs, MD

Section Head, Nutrition
Chair, Department of Pediatrics Promotions Committee
Associate Affiliate, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Colorado State University

   Phone: 303-724-3260

Section of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics
Children's Hospital Colorado
Colorado School of Public Health
Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Colorado State University

Pediatrics, Pediatric Clinical Nutrition, Pediatric Gastroenterology

Medical Degree

  • University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1987

Master of Science

  • Nutrition Science, University of Maryland, 1979


  • Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1987-1990


  • PEW National Nutrition Program, 1990-1993
  • Pediatric Nutrition and Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1990-1993

My primary research interest is related to trace mineral nutrition in the human, defining dietary requirements and evaluating the metabolic regulation and adaptation to different physiologic states. Populations of interest include normal infants, (especially breastfed), pregnant & lactating women, and premature infants. A major research tool uses stable isotope of trace minerals, including Zn and Fe, which we have applied in numerous low resource settings.

Current research support addresses investigations in normal infants in the U.S. and in several developing countries. Most recently I have been investigating the impact of dietary changes in infants on the intestinal microbiome and the infant immune system.

My secondary research interest is in childhood obesity. Active investigations include effects of insulin resistance during pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes; and a community-based prevention and treatment of childhood obesity in a predominantly Hispanic population in Colorado.

I have mentored approximately 30 postdoctoral fellows and junior faculty, and over 30 predoctoral trainees. As a K-24 Career Development awardee, I am strongly committed to rigorous academic training for young investigators.

  • Vice Chair, Academic Affairs, Department of Pediatrics, CU School of Medicine, 2013-present
  • Member, Nutrition Council, American Society for Nutrition, 2009-present
  • Member, APS, 2007-present
  • Member, SPR, 1996-present
  • Member, American Society for Nutrition, 1990-present
  • Member, International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation, 1986-present
  • Published article "Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity" is one of the Top 100 Cited Articles in Pediatrics, 2013
  • A Mile Above SEED - Peer to Peer program, Children's Hospital Colorado, 2013
  • Invited Speaker and Participant, Prevention of Obesity in Infancy and Early Childhood, NIH Workshop, Washington D.C., 2013
  • Invited Guest Speaker, Washington Global Health Alliance, Discovery Series, Seattle, WA, 2013
  • Golden Stethoscope Excellence in Clinical Education Award, CU School of Medicine, 2013
  • Member, Dietary Guidelines 0-2 Federal Steering Committee, Workshop Planning Committee and Thematic Working Group, 2012-2013
  • Best Doctors in America, 2012
  • America's Top Doctors, 2012
  • Invited Plenary Speaker, Chilean Society of Pediatrics, Punta Arenas, Chile, 2012
  • Invited Speaker, Institute of Medicine: Health Impacts of WIC - Planning a Research Agenda, Washington, D.C., 2010
  • Samuel J. Fomon Nutrition Award, AAP, 2010
  • Cambridge Who’s Who, 2006-2010
  • Excellence in Teaching Award, UCSOM 1993, 1996-1998, 2009
  • Co-Chair, Task Force on Obesity, AAP, 2003-2006
  • Chair, Committee on Nutrition, AAP, 2001-2005
  • Member, Committee on Nutrition, 1997-2005
  • Physician Nutrition Specialist Award, American Society of Nutrition, 1998-1999
  • Resident Research Award, AAP, 1991
  • Haemer MA, Ranade D, Baron AE, Krebs NF. A clinical model of obesity treatment is more effective in preschoolers and Spanish speaking families. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 May;21(5):1004-12. [PMID: 23784904]
  • Krebs NF. Zinc homeostasis, whole body. In: Kretsinger RH, Uversky VN, Permyakov EA, editors. Encyclopedia of metalloproteins. Vol. 2. New York: Springer; 2013.
  • Miller LV, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption. Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb;109(4):695-700. [PMID: 22617116]
  • Pearson V, Ruzas C, Krebs NF, Goldenberg NA, Manco-Johnson MJ, Bernard TJ. Overweight and obesity are increased in childhood-onset cerebrovascular disease. J Child Neurol. 2013 Apr;28(4):517-9. [PMID: 22647484]
  • Althabe F, Belizan JM, Mazzoni A, Berrueta M, Hemingway-Foday J, Koso-Thomas M, McClure E, Chomba E, Garces A, Goudar S, Kodkany B, Saleem S, Pasha O, Patel A, Esamai F, Carlo WA, Krebs NF, Derman RJ, Goldenberg RL, Hibberd P, Liechty EA, Wright LL, Bergel EF, Jobe AH, Buekens P. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol. Reprod Health. 2012;9:22. [PMID: 22992312]
  • Dattilo AM, Birch L, Krebs NF, Lake A, Taveras EM, Saavedra JM. Need for early interventions in the prevention of pediatric overweight: a review and upcoming directions. J Obes. 2012;2012:123023. [PMID: 22675610]
  • Garces A, McClure EM, Hambidge M, Krebs NF, Mazariegos M, Wright LL, Moore J, Carlo WA. Training traditional birth attendants on the WHO Essential Newborn Care reduces perinatal mortality. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 May;91(5):593-7. [PMID: 22324644]
  • Goudar SS, Carlo WA, McClure EM, Pasha O, Patel A, Esamai F, Chomba E, Garces A, Althabe F, Kodkany B, Sami N, Derman RJ, Hibberd PL, Liechty EA, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Buekens P, Moore J, Wallace D, Jobe AH, Koso-Thomas M, Wright LL, Goldenberg RL. The Maternal and Newborn Health Registry Study of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012 Sep;118(3):190-3. [PMID: 22738806]
  • Haemer M, Primak L, Krebs NF. Normal Childhood Nutrition and Its Disorders. In: Hay W, Levin M, Deterding R, Abzug M, editors. Current Pediatric Diagnosis and Treatment. 21st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
  • Hambidge KM, Mazariegos M, Kindem M, Wright LL, Cristobal-Perez C, Juarez-Garcia L, Westcott JE, Goco N, Krebs NF. Infant stunting is associated with short maternal stature. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Jan;54(1):117-9. [PMID: 21866055]
  • Krebs NF, Mazariegos M, Chomba E, Sami N, Pasha O, Tshefu A, Carlo WA, Goldenberg RL, Bose CL, Wright LL, Koso-Thomas M, Goco N, Kindem M, McClure EM, Westcott J, Garces A, Lokangaka A, Manasyan A, Imenda E, Hartwell TD, Hambidge KM. Randomized controlled trial of meat compared with multimicronutrient-fortified cereal in infants and toddlers with high stunting rates in diverse settings. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;96(4):840-7. [PMID: 22952176]
  • Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Culbertson DL, Sian L, Miller LV, Hambidge KM. Comparison of complementary feeding strategies to meet zinc requirements of older breastfed infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):30-5. [PMID: 22648720]
  • Liu JR, Sheng XY, Hu YQ, Yu XG, Westcott JE, Miller LV, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM. Fecal calprotectin levels are higher in rural than in urban Chinese infants and negatively associated with growth. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:129. [PMID: 22917269]
  • Neville MC, Anderson SM, McManaman JL, Badger TM, Bunik M, Contractor N, Crume T, Dabelea D, Donovan SM, Forman N, Frank DN, Friedman JE, German JB, Goldman A, Hadsell D, Hambidge M, Hinde K, Horseman ND, Hovey RC, Janoff E, Krebs NF, Lebrilla CB, Lemay DG, MacLean PS, Meier P, Morrow AL, Neu J, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Raiten DJ, Rijnkels M, Seewaldt V, Shur BD, VanHouten J, Williamson P. Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2012 Jun;17(2):167-88. [PMID: 22752723]
  • Porter RM, Thrasher J, Krebs NF. Implementing a Pediatric Obesity Care Guideline in a Freestanding Children's Hospital to Improve Child Safety and Hospital Preparedness. J Pediatr Nurs. 2012 Jan 2. [PMID: 22178030]
  • Reynolds A, Krebs NF, Stewart PA, Austin H, Johnson SL, Withrow N, Molloy C, James SJ, Johnson C, Clemons T, Schmidt B, Hyman SL. Iron status in children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2012 Nov;130 Suppl 2:S154-9. [PMID: 23118246]
  • Roberts SB, Krebs N. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic? Adv Nutr. 2012;3(5):730-1. [PMID: 22983856]
  • Ruz M, Carrasco F, Rojas P, Codoceo J, Inostroza J, Basfi-Fer K, Valencia A, Csendes A, Papapietro K, Pizarro F, Olivares M, Westcott JL, Hambidge KM, Krebs NF. Heme- and nonheme-iron absorption and iron status 12 mo after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;96(4):810-7. [PMID: 22952172]
  • Sherlock LG, Krebs NF. Zinc as a protective nutrient. Functional Food Reviews. 2012 Sept;4(3):114-129.,%202012/issue%2003,%20September/FFR_2012_00015/FFR_2012_00015.pdf
  • Young BE, Johnson SL, Krebs NF. Biological determinants linking infant weight gain and child obesity: current knowledge and future directions. Adv Nutr. 2012 ;3(5):675-86. [PMID: 22983846]
  • Hambidge KM, Sheng X, Mazariegos M, Jiang T, Garces A, Li D, Westcott J, Tshefu A, Sami N, Pasha O, Chomba E, Lokangaka A, Goco N, Manasyan A, Wright LL, Koso-Thomas M, Bose C, Goldenberg RL, Carlo WA, McClure EM, Krebs NF. Evaluation of meat as a first complementary food for breastfed infants: impact on iron intake. Nutr Rev. 2011 Nov;69 Suppl 1:S57-63. [PMID: 22043884]
  • Ruz M, Carrasco F, Rojas P, Codoceo J, Inostroza J, Basfi-fer K, Csendes A, Papapietro K, Pizarro F, Olivares M, Sian L, Westcott JL, Miller LV, Hambidge KM, Krebs NF. Zinc absorption and zinc status are reduced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a randomized study using 2 supplements. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1004-11. [PMID: 21865332]
  • Tran CD, Katsikeros R, Manton N, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Butler RN, Davidson GP. Zinc homeostasis and gut function in children with celiac disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1026-32. [PMID: 21865333]
  • Krebs NF, Mazariegos M, Tshefu A, Bose C, Sami N, Chomba E, Carlo W, Goco N, Kindem M, Wright LL, Hambidge KM, Complementary Feeding Study Group. Meat consumption is associated with less stunting among toddlers in four diverse low-income settings. Food Nutr Bull. 2011 Sep;32(3):185-91. [PMID: 22073791]
  • Krebs NF. Infant feeding matters. J Pediatr. 2011 Aug;159(2):175-6. [PMID: 21592496]
  • Hambidge KM, Miller LV, Krebs NF. Physiological requirements for zinc. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Jan;81(1):72-8. [PMID: 22002220]
  • Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Mazariegos M, Westcott J, Goco N, Wright LL, Koso-Thomas M, Tshefu A, Bose C, Pasha O, Goldenberg R, Chomba E, Carlo W, Kindem M, Das A, Hartwell T, McClure E, Complementary Feeding Study Group. Complementary feeding: a Global Network cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr. 2011 Jan 13;11:4. [PMID: 21232139]
  • Grummer-Strawn LM, Reinold C, Krebs NF. Use of World Health Organization and CDC growth charts for children aged 0-59 months in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 Sep 10;59(RR-9):1-15. [PMID: 20829749]
  • Miller LV, Sheng XY, Hambidge KM, Westcott JE, Sian L, Krebs NF. The use of dysprosium to measure endogenous zinc excretion in feces eliminates the necessity of complete fecal collections. J Nutr. 2010 Aug;140(8):1524-8. [PMID: 20573943]
  • Krebs NF, Gao D, Gralla J, Collins JS, Johnson SL. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. J Pediatr. 2010 Aug;157(2):252-8 . [PMID: 20304413]
  • Mazariegos M, Hambidge KM, Westcott JE, Solomons NW, Raboy V, Das A, Goco N, Kindem M, Wright LL, Krebs NF. Neither a zinc supplement nor phytate-reduced maize nor their combination enhance growth of 6- to 12-month-old Guatemalan infants. J Nutr. 2010 May;140(5):1041-8. [PMID: 20335626]
  • Klein JD, Sesselberg TS, Johnson MS, O'Connor KG, Cook S, Coon M, Homer C, Krebs N, Washington R. Adoption of body mass index guidelines for screening and counseling in pediatric practice. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb;125(2):265-72. [PMID: 20083518]
  • Carlo WA, Goudar SS, Jehan I, Chomba E, Tshefu A, Garces A, Parida S, Althabe F, McClure EM, Derman RJ, Goldenberg RL, Bose C, Krebs NF, Panigrahi P, Buekens P, Chakraborty H, Hartwell TD, Wright LL. Newborn-care training and perinatal mortality in developing countries. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 18;362(7):614-23. [PMID: 20164485]
  • Brown KH, Eagle-Stone R, Krebs NF, Peerson JM. Dietary intervention strategies to enhance zinc nutrition: Promotion and support of breastfeeding for infants and young children. In: 2nd IZiNCG Technical Document, Food and Nutrition Bulletin 30: 144-171, 2009.
  • Bunik M, Krebs NF, Beaty B, McClatchey M, Olds DL. Breastfeeding, infant weight status and WIC enrollment in the Nurse Family Partnership Program. Breastfeeding Medicine 4:145-149, 2009.
  • Ross E, Krebs NF, Shroyer AL, Dickenson, LM, Barrett PH, Johnson SL. Early growth faltering predicts longitudinal growth. Early Human Development 85:583-588, 2009. [PMID: 19608359]
  • Ruz M, Carrasco F, Rojas P, Codoceo J, Inostroza J, Rebolledo A, Basfi-fer K, Csendes A, Papapetro K, Pizarro F, Olivares M, Sian L, Westcott JE, Hambidge KM, Krebs NF. Iron absorption and iron status are reduced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Am J Clin Nutr 90:527-32, 2009. [PMID: 19625680]
  • Gibson RS, Abebe Y, Stabler S, Allen RH, Westcott JE, Stoecker BJ, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM. Zinc, gravida, infection, and iron, but not Vitamin B-12 or folate status, predict hemoglobin during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia. J Nutr 138: 581-6, 2008. [PMID: 18287370]
  • Hambidge KM, Mazariegos M, Solomons NW, Westcott JE, Lei S, Raboy V, Grunwald G, Miller LV, Sheng X, Krebs NF. Intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc in Guatemalan school children appears normal. J Nutrition 137(7):1747-1749, 2007.
  • Krebs NF. Meat as an early complementary food for Infants: Implications for macro and micronutrient intakes. In: Issues in Complementary Feeding (C Agostoni, O Brunser, eds). Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, Pediatr Program, 60: 221-233, Nestec Ltd, Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel, 2007.
  • Krebs NF, Hambidge KM. Complementary feeding: Clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition. Am J Clin Nutr 85(suppl): 639S-45S, 2007. Krebs NF, Himes JH, Jacobson D, Nicklas TA, Guilday P, Styne D. Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 120:S193-S228, 2007.
  • Miller LV, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM. A mathematical model of zinc absorption in humans as a function of dietary zinc and phytate. J Nutrition, 137: 135-141; 2007. [PMID: 17182814]
  • Hambidge KM, Abebe Y, Gibson RS, Westcott JE, Miller LV, Lei S, Stoecker BJ, Arbide I, Teshome A, Bailey KB, Krebs NF. Zinc absorption during late pregnancy in rural southern Ethiopia. Am J Clin Nutr 84:11-2-1106, 2006. [PMID: 17093163]
  • Krebs NF, Primak LE. Comprehensive integration of nutrition into medical training. Am J Clin Nutr 83: (suppl) 945S-950S, 2006.
  • Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Butler N, Robinson C, Bell M, Hambidge KM. Meat as a first complementary food for breastfed infants: feasibility and impact on zinc intake and status. J Pediatr Gastroenter Nutr 42:207-214, 2006. [PMID: 16456417]
  • Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Rodden DJ, Ferguson KW, Miller LV, Hambidge KM. Low exchangeable zinc pool sizes at birth in small for gestational age infants. Am J Clin Nutr 84: 1340-1343; 2006.
  • Xiaoyang S, Hambidge KM, Xi-Xiang Z, Jun-Xue N, Bailey KB, Gibson RS, Krebs NF. Major variables of zinc homeostasis in Chinese toddlers. Am J Clin Nutr, 84: 389-394; 2006. [PMID: 16895888]