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Brent E. Palmer, PhD - Assistant Professor

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Director, Flow Cytometry, ClinImmune Labs

Technical Director of the Center for AIDS Research Immunology Core


12700 E. 19th Avenue, B164, R2
Aurora, CO 80045
Phone: 303-724-7203
Fax: 303-724-7212


1983-1987 BS (Microbiology) Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

1990-1994 MS (Biology) California State University, Chico, CA

1995-1999 PhD (Immunology) Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

1999-2005 Post-doc, University of Colorado at Denver and HSC, Denver, CO


Honor, Award, Activities and Societies:


Honors Graduate Research Grant Award. California State University

Member, Phi Theta Phi Honor Society

Member, American Association of Immunologists

7th and 9th  Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections Travel Award

Training Grant Award, Division of Infectious Diseases

Research Travel Award, 12th Annual National Conference of the National Institutes of Health Centers for AIDS


The primary focus of my research is to delineate the mechanisms responsible for HIV-associated CD4+ T cell dysfunction.  During chronic HIV infection HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are skewed toward an effector phenotype that is unable to produce IL-2 and proliferate and the loss of these cell to function has been correlated with disease severity.  Most recently we have been assessing the role of costimulatory receptor, such as protein death receptor 1 (PD-1), in the generation of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell dysfunction.  I am also interested in a novel humanized mouse model of HIV infection for the study anti-HIV immunotherapeutic agents and the role of CD4+ T cells in the development of chronic beryllium disease.  As the director of the flow cytometry facility, I am steadily working on the development of novel flow-based methods for assessing the role of antigen-specific T cells in HIV and lung disease.


Research Team:

Sharon Sen

Jennifer Schneider

Sam Li

Preston Neff

Garrett Hedlund

Anna Monley

Berges BK, Wheat WH, Palmer B, Connick E and Akkina R.  HIV-1 infection and CD4 T cell depletion in the humanized Rag2-/-gammac-/-(RAG-hu) mouse model.  Retrovirology.  2006 Nov 01; 3:76.

Anderson J, Li MJ, Palmer BE, Remling L, Li S, Yam P, Yee JK, Rossi J, Zaia J and Akkina R.  In vivo derivation of HIV-1 resistant transgenic T cells by lentiviral vector transduction of a triple combination of anti-HIV genes anti-CCR5 ribozyme, tat-rev siRNA and a TAR decoy.  Molecular Therapy.  2007 June; 15(6):1182-8. 

Palmer BE, Mack DG, Martin AK, Maier LA and Fontenot AP.  CD57 Expression Correlates with Alveolitis Severity in Subjects with Beryllium-Induced Disease.  Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  2007 July; 120(1):184-91.

Baumgartner J, Wilson C, Palmer BE, Richter D, Banerjee A and McCarter M.  Melanoma induces immunosuppression by upregulating FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.  Journal of Surgery Research.  2007 July; 141(1):72-77. 

Golden-Mason l, Palmer B, Klarquist J, Mengshol JA,  Castelblanco N and Rosen HR.  Upregulation of PD-1 expression on circulating and intrahepatic HCV-specific CD8+ T cells is associated with reversible immune dysfunction.  Journal of Virology.  2007 Sept; 81(17):9249-58Epub 2007 Jun 13.

McCarter MD, Baumgartner J, Escobar GA, Richter D, Lewis K, Robinson W, Wilson C, Palmer BE and Gonzales R.  Immunosuppressive Dendritic and Regulatory T Cells are Upregulated in Melanoma Patients.  Ann Surg Oncol.  2007 Oct; 14(10):2854-60. Epub 2007 Jun 26. 

D’Souza M, Fontenot AP, Mack DG, Lozupone CA, Dillon S, Meditz A, Wilson CC, Connick E and Palmer BE.  PD-1 Expression on HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is Driven by Viral Replication and Associated with T Cell Dysfunction.  Journal of Immunology.  2007 Aug; 179(3):1979-87.

Smyk-Pearson S, Tester IA, Klarquist J, Palmer BE, Pawlotsky JM, Golden-Mason L and Rosen HR.  Spontaneous Recovery in Acute Human HCV infection:  Functional T Cell Thresholds and Relative Importance of CD4 help.  Journal of Virology.  2008 Feb; 82(4):1827-37.

Palmer BE, Mack DG, Martin AK, Maier LA and Fontenot AP.  PD-1 is a potential target for the down regulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lungs.  Journal of Immunology.  2008 Feb 15; 180(4):2704-12.

Baumgartner JM, Gonzalez R, Lewis K, Robinson W, Richter D, Palmer BE, Wilson CC and McCarter MD. Increased Survival from Stage IV Melanoma Associated with Fewer Regulatory T Cells.  Surg Res.  2008 Jun 2. [Epub ahead of print].

Baumgartner JM, Palmer BE, Banerjee A and McCarter MD.  Role of Melanoma Secreted hrombospondin-1 on Induction of Immunosuppressive Regulatory T cells through CD47.  Journal of Cancer Molecules.  2008; 4(5):145-152.

López MC, Palmer BE and Lawrence DA.  Phenotypic differences between cord blood and adult peripheral blood.  Clinical Cytometry.  Epub ahead of print July 18, 2008.

Mack DG, Martin AK, Palmer BE, Maier LA, Watts TH and Fontenot AP.  4-1BB Enhances Proliferation of Beryllium-Specific T cell in the lung of Subjects with Chronic Beryllium Disease.  Journal of Immunology. 2008 Sept 15; 181(6):4381-8.

Williams-Skipp C, Raman T, Valuck RJ, Watkins H, Palmer BE and Scheinman RI.  Unmasking of a Protective TNFR1 Mediated Signal in the Collagen Arthritis Model.  Arthritis and Rheumatism.  2009 Jan 29; 60(2):408-418.

Howe R, Dillon S, Rogers L, Palmer B, Schichtemeier R, Rietmeijer C, Ray G, Connick E and Wilson CC.  Phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD4+CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infected individuals.  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.  2009 Apr 15; 50(5):444-56.

Mack DG, Martin AK, Palmer BE, Maier LA and Fontenot AP.  CD27 expression on CD4+ T cells differentiates effector from regulatory T cell subsets in the lung.  J Immunol.  2009 Jun 1; 182(11):7317-24.

Kassu A, D’Souza M, O'Connor BP, Kelly E, Akkina R, Fontenot AP and Palmer BE Decreased 4-1BB expression on HIV-specific CD4+ T cells is associated with sustained viral replication and reduced IL-2 production.  Clin Immunol.  2009 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print]. 

Golden-Mason L, Palmer BE, Kassam N, Townshend-Bulson L, Livingston S, McMahon BJ, Castelblanco N, Kuchroo V, Gretch DR and Rosen HR.  Negative Immune Regulator TIM-3 is overexpressed in epatitis C Infection and its Blockade Rescues Dysfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells.  J. of Virology.  2009 Sep; 83(18):9122-30. Epub 2009 Jul 8.

Mack DG, Lanham AM, Falta MT, Palmer BE, Maier LA and Fontenot AP.  Deficient and Dysfunctional Regulatory T Cells in the Lungs of Chronic Beryllium Disease Subjects.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med.  2010 Mar 18. [Epub ahead of print].

Matalon S, Palmer BE, Nold MF, Furlan A, Kassu A, Fossati G, Mascagni P and Dinarello CA.  The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor ITF2357 Decreases Surface CXCR4 and CCR5 Expression on CD4+ T-Cells and Monocytes and is Superior to Valproic Acid for Latent HIV-1 Expression in Vitro.  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.  2010 Mar 17. [Epub ahead of print].

Kassu A, Marcus RA, D’Souza M, Kelly-McKnight E, Akkina R, Fontenot A, Wilson CC and Palmer BE. Regulation of virus-specific CD4+ T cell function by multiple costimulatory receptors during chronic HIV Infection (Under review, Journal of Immunology).

See additional information about Brent Palmer and ClinImmune Labs at: