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Department of Orthopedics

Department of Orthopedics
 

Biomechanics Lab

Mechanical testing of orthopedic devices, hard and soft tissues, whole joints, and biomaterials


Baldini
Todd Baldini, MSc

Lab Manager: Todd Baldini, MSc

Located on the Anschutz Medical Campus of the University of Colorado Denver, the Biomechanics Lab represents a facility unique in the Rocky Mountain Region. The state-of-the-art lab encompasses biomechanical testing, device fabrication and evaluation, surgical simulation, and computer modeling. The lab performs research in all areas of orthopedic biomechanics. 

The lab also frequently collaborates with other academic institutions (Colorado School of Mines, Colorado State University, University of Colorado Boulder) and health care facilities (Children's Hospital Colorado, Denver Health).​​

Instron bi-axial servo-hydraulic test machine:

  • Bi-axial load cell
  • Extensometers
  • Custom built cryo-clamp for soft tissue testing
  • 16 bit data acquisition system with LabVIEW data acquisition software
  • MaxTRAQ 3D Motion Capture System with 2 cameras
  • TekScan Dynamic Pressure Measurement System
  • Strain gauge signal conditioners and bridges (6)
  • Polariscope (for photoelastic stress and strain measurement)

6 degree of freedom joint/spine tester:

  • All six degrees of freedom are uncoupled and instrumented
  • All three axis of rotation can be controlled in torque or rotation control

Fully functional machine shop to design and build test fixtures and prototype instruments or fix and repair equipment:

  • SolidWorks 3D CAD software
  • Machine Shop
    • Bridgeport mill
    • Sheldon lathe
    • Delta band saw

Imaging facilities we have access to on campus include:

  • 2T MRI
  • CT
  • Micro CT
  • DEXA
  • C-Arm fluoroscopy

Biological tissue-handling capabilities:

  • Approved to receive tissue from several tissue banks
  • Freezer (-25C°) for storing tissue
  • Surgical tools
  • Dissection tools
  • Stryker endoscopy tower

Research projects include:

Open reduction and internal fixation with plate versus percutaneous screw placement for split depressed tibial plateau fractures: a cadaveric study (Cyril Mauffrey MD FRCS, Richard J Bowles MD, Vivek Chadayammuri)

Analysis of gravity vs. pump feed on fluid pressure and flow in simulated arthroscopic surgery (Jonathan Bravman MD, Todd Baldini MS,  Ryan Wolsky)

Carbon fiber implant locking screw interface mechanics (David Hak, MD, MBA, Ryan R. Fader, MD, Todd Baldini, MS)

Biomechanical evaluation of five- and six-stranded soft-tissue grafts as well as a novel tibial fixation device for use in ACL reconstruction (Jonathan Bravman MD, Todd Baldini MS,  Ryan Wolsky)

Medical Students

Vivek P. Chadayammuri (2014) with Dr. Richard Bowles and Dr. Cyril Mauffrey
Jason S. Hafer (2013) with Dr. Eric McCarty
Andrew Goschka (2013) with Dr. Eric McCarty
Kevin Krughoff (2013) with Dr. Adam Seidl and Dr. Jim Carollo
Joshua Shapiro (2013) with Dr. Adam Seidl and Dr. Jim Carollo
Lisa Hamilton (2012/13) w/Dr. Burger
Cameron Barton (2012/13) w/Dr. Burger
Byron Ellis (2011) w/Dr. E. McCarty
Dana Rioux-Forker w/Dr. A. Vidal & Dr. E. McCarty
Shane Cook w/Dr. E. McCarty
Elise Hiza w/Dr. E. McCarty
John Henry Carlson w/Dr. S. Morgan & Dr. R. Koonce
Mark Winston w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Clifton Hancock w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Bradley Gustave w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Shilo Gilbert w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Craig Hogan w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Ramin Alizadeh w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Sean Geraghty w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Josh Brauer w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
David Sloss w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Cody Hartshorn w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Edwin Bacz w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Laura DiMatteo w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
Brian Tompkins w/Dr. D. Eckhoff
 

Undergraduate Students

Ryan Wolsky, Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado - Boulder
Gabriel Peacher, BS, Spanish, Trinity College
Kaydence Cowley, BS, Engineering, Lafayette College
David Grabski, BS, Engineering Physics, Colorado School of Mines
Kelly Desens, BS, Engineering, Colorado School of Mines       
Kyle Smith, BS, Engineering, Colorado School of Mines
Tara Doucette, BS, Kinesiology, CU Boulder, w/Dr. Eckhoff
Kim Huelson, BS, Mathematical and Computer Sciences, CSM
Laura Borgstede, BS, Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University
Luke Stumme, BS, Engineering, Colorado School of Mines
Vanessa Ruedebusch, BS, Mechanical Engineering, Denver University
Timothy Nicklas, BS, Mechanical Engineering, CU Boulder
Sean Douherty, BS, Mechanical Engineering, CU Boulder
Jennifer Cech, BS, Mechanical Engineering, CU Boulder

Graduate Students

Kelly Desens, MS (2008)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines
Thesis: In Vivo Prediction of Modular Component Sizing, Orientation, and Range of Motion, for Total Hip Arthroplasty
 
Anthony J. Babb, MS (2007)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines
Thesis; A Comparative Study of the Anteroposterior, Cylindrical, Posterior Condylar, and Transepicondylar Axes for Femoral Implant Positioning in Total Knee Arthroplasty
 
Sara L. Lewandowski, MS (2007)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines
Thesis; Development of a Pelvic Reference Frame for Image-Guided Computer-Assisted Total Hip Arthroplasty

Tara N. Holz, MS (2007)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines
Thesis; The Extensor Mechanism, Patellofermoral Contact Mechanics, and Kinematics of the Knee in Four Conditions; Healty, ACL Deficient, Implanted PCL Sparing and Sacrificing.

Katherine Peeke, MS (2007)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines
Thesis; Study of Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty Around a Single Flexion Axis Evaluated for Helical and Conical Axes

Heather E. Hoops, MS (2007)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines
Thesis; The Neruomuscular Response of the Lumbar Spine to Varying Rest Durations Between Cyclic Flexion Periods

Kerry Jones, MS (2006)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines
Thesis; Development of a Soft Tissue Analog for Use in Cadaveric Knee Brace Testing

Eric T. Hansen, MS (2004)
Engineering Systems, Colorado School of Mines, w/Prof. Shoureshi
Thesis; Development, Calibration, and Evaluation of a Telemetric Transducer for Patellofemoral Force Measurement in a Human Knee

Fellows

Kirk Reynolds, MD, (2012-2013) with Dr. Eric McCarty
Nicholas Aberle, MD, (2012-2013) with Dr. Eric McCarty
Jeffrey Brunelli, MD, (2011-2012) w/Dr. E. McCarty
Kevin Caperton, MD, (2011-2012) w/Dr. E. McCarty
Lucas Rylander, MD (2010-2011) w/Dr. E. McCarty
Jennifer Fitzpatrick, MD, (2010-211) w/Dr. E. McCarty
Alfred Mansour, MD, (2010-2011) w/Dr. G. Georgopoulos (Children's Hospital Colorado)
James Barsi, MD, (2010-2011) w/Dr. G. Georgopoulos (Children's Hospital Colorado)
Shaun Traub, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Chad Efird, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Kevin McGee, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Jason Oliviero, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Kevin Honig, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Brett Gibson, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Brian Kerr, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Dave Rabalais, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
KG Swan, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Lance Snyder, MD, w/Dr. E. McCarty
Kazayoshi Gamada, PhD, (2003 – 2005)


Residents

Ryan Fader, MD, (2014) with Dr. David Hak (Denver Health)
Richard Bowles, MD, (2014) with Dr. Cyril Mauffrey (Denver Health)
Justin Mitchell, MD, (2014) with Dr. Lucas Rylander (VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System)
Michael Messina, MD, (2014) with Dr. Lucas Rylander (VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System)
Sarah Sibbel (Pinsky), MD, (2012) with Dr. Armando Vidal (Children's Hospital Colorado)
George Chaus, MD, (2011-2012) w/Dr. Hammerberg (Denver Health)
Adam Seidl, MD, (2011-2012) w/Dr. A. Vidal (Childern's Hospital Colorado)
Michal Taylor, MD, w/Dr. A. Vidal
Jon Bravman, MD, w/Dr. A. Vidal
Ryan Koonce, MD, w/Dr. S. Morgan
Hector Mejia, MD, w/Dr. M. Dayton
Laura DiMatteo, MD, w/Dr. S. Morgan
Roger Murkin, MD, w/Dr. S. Morgan
Monica Alberts, MD, w/Dr. S. Morgan
Kareem Sobky, MD, w/Dr. J. Wolf
Mike Repine, MD, w/Dr. S. Morgan

Peer-Reviewed Manuscripts

Effect of a novel sterilization method on biomechanical properties of soft tissue allografts.
Baldini T, Caperton K (fellow), Hawkins M, McCarty E. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Aug 7. M.

Coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: coracoid tunnel diameter correlates with failure risk. Rylander LS (fellow), Baldini T, Mitchell JJ (resident), Messina M (resident), Justl Ellis IA (med student), McCarty EC. Orthopedics. 2014 Jun;37(6):e531-5.

A biomechanical comparison of anterior cruciate ligament suspensory fixation devices in a porcine cadaver model. Rylander L (fellow), Brunelli J (fellow), Taylor M (resident), Baldini T, Ellis B, Hawkins M, McCarty E. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2014 Feb;29(2):230-4. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Knotless double-row rotator cuff repair:  A comparative biomechanical cadaver study of two knotless suture anchors. Efird, C.(Fellow), Traub, S.(Fellow), Rylander, L.(Fellow), Baldini, T., Rioux-Forker, D. (Med Student), Spalazzi, J., Hawkins, M., Davisson, T., McCarty, E. Orthopedics. 2013 Aug;36(8):588

Correlation of Vertebral Strength Topography with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Structure. Noshchenko A, Plaseied A, Patel VV, Burger E, Baldini T, Yun L.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Aug 3.

Are conventional reconstruction plates equivalent to precontoured locking plates for distal humerus fracture fixation? A biomechanics cadaver study.Koonce RC, Baldini TH, Morgan SJ. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2012 Aug;27(7):697-701.

A biomechanical study on the effects of rib head release on thoracic spinal motion. Yao X, Blount TJ, Suzuki N, Brown LK, van der Walt CJ, Baldini T, Lindley EM, Patel VV, Burger EL. Eur Spine J. 2012 Apr;21(4):606-12.

Evaluation of spinal instrumentation rod bending characteristics for in-situ contouring. Noshchenko A, Xianfeng Y, Armour GA, Baldini T, Patel VV, Ayers R, Burger E. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2011 Jul;98(1):192-200.

Nucleus replacement device failure: A case report and biomechanical study. Lindley EM, Jaafar S, Noshchenko A, Baldini T, Nair DP, Shandas R, Burger EL, Patel VV. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Oct 15;35(22):E1241-7

Thermomechanical effects of spine surgery rods composed of different metals and alloys. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Aug 25.

Facet joint biomechanics at the treated and adjacent levels after total disk replacement. Botolin, S.; Puttlitz, C.; Baldini, T.; Petrella, A.; Burger, E.; Abjornson, C.; Patel, V. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Jan 1;36(1):E27-32

A biomechanical comparison of three different lateral tibia locking plates. Lindeque B, Baldini T. Orthopedics. 2010 Jan 1;33(1):18-21.

Strength of single vs double anchor repair of type II SLAP lesions: A cadaver study. Baldini, T; Snyder, R; McCarty, E, Peacher, G; Bach, J. Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 2009 Nov;25(11):1257-60

Arthroscopic suture material and knot type: An updated biomechanical analysis. Swan, K; McCarty, E; Baldini, T. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, (37) 1578-1585, August 2009.

Sobky K, Baldini T, Thomas K, Bach J, Williams A, Wolf JM>, “Biomechanical Comparison of Different Volar Fracture Fixation Plates for Distal Radius Fractures.” Hand, 2008 Jun;3(2):96-101. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

Eckhoff, D; Hogan, C; DiMatteo, L.; Robinson, M; Bach, J; Difference Between the Epicondylar and Cylindrical Axis of the Knee; Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol 461, 2007, pp 238-244.

Robinson, M; Eckhoff, DG; Reinig, KD; Bagur, MM; Bach, JM; Variability of Landmark Identification in Total Knee Arthroplasty; . Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol 442, 2006, pp 57-62.

Eilert, RE, Hill, K; Bach, J. "Greater Trochanteric Transfer for the Treatment of Coxa Brevis."Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol 434, 2005, pp 92-101.

Eckhoff, DG; Bach, JM; Spitzer, VM; Reinig, KD; Bagur, MM; Baldini, TH; Flannery; NMP."Three-Dimensional Mechanics, Kinematics, and Morphology of the Knee Viewed in Virtual Reality."J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., Dec 2005, 87, pp. 71 - 80.

Alizadeh RI, Eckhoff DG, Samson MM, Doucette TK, Hogan CA, Bach JM. "Axial and Rotational Alignment of the Leg."Biomed Sci Instrum, Vol. 40, 2004, pp.290-6.

Erickson, M.; Oliver, T.; Baldini, T.; Bach, J.M. "Biomechanical Assessment of Conventional Unit Rod Fixation Versus a Unit Rod Pedicle Screw Construct: A Human Cadaver Study."Spine, Vol 29, No. 12, 2004, pp 1314-1319.

Eckhoff, D.G.; Bach, J.M.; Spitzer, V.M.; Reinig, K.D.; Bagur, M.; Baldini, T; Rubenstein, D; Humphries, S. "3-D Morphology and Kinematics of the Distal Femur Viewed in Virtual Reality: Part II." Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 85-A, Supplement 4, 2003, pp. 97-104.

Eckhoff, D.G.; Dwyer, T.F.; Bach, J.M.; Spitzer, V.M.; Reining, K.D."Three-Dimensional Morphology of the Distal Part of the Femur Viewed in Virtual Reality." Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 83-A, Supplement 2, Part I, 2001, pp. 43-50.


Peer Reviewed Abstracts

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2015 (accepted)
Biomechanical Assessment of Three Patellar Advancement Procedures for the Treatment of Patella Alta in Children with Cerebral Palsy
Adam Seidl, MD (resident), Todd Baldini, M.Sc., Jason Rhodes, James Carollo, PhD, PE

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2015 (accepted)
Biomechanical Comparison of Traditional Anchors to All-Suture Anchors in a Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair Cadaver Model
Andrew Goschka BS; Jason Hafer BS; Kirk Reynolds MD; Nicholas Aberle MD; Todd Baldini MSc; Monica Hawkins PhD; Eric McCarty MD

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2014
Revitalization of bone allograft with human induced pluripotent stem cells
Brian Davis (med student), Michelle Sauque, Todd Baldini, Ganna Bilousova, Karin Payne.

29th Annual Meeting of the North American Spine Society (NASS)
A Comparative Analysis of Lumbo-sacral Fixation Strengths: What is Best in a Long Fusion?  Kleck CJ (fellow), Illing D (med student), Lindley EM, Patel VV, Barton C (med student), Baldini T, Razavi-Shearer D, Cain CMJ, Burger EL

Sociedty of Biomaterials Annual Meeting, 2013
Biomechanical Testing of Soft Tissue Allografts Sterilized Using Two Different Methods
K. Caperton, MD (Fellow), M. Hawkins, PhD, T. Baldini, MS, E. McCarty, MD

Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America’s (POSNA) Annual Meeting, 2012
Biomechanics of Two Physeal-Sparing ACL Reconstruction Techniques: A Cadaver Study
Sarah Sibbel, MD; Alfred Mansour, MD; Todd Baldini, MS; Pam Wolfe, MS; Michelle Wolcott, MD; Armando Vidal, MD

Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America’s (POSNA) Annual Meeting, 2012
Biomechanical comparison of augmented distal fixation of Fassier-Duval telescoping rods
Alfred Mansour, MD; James Barsi, MD; Todd Baldini, MS; Gaia Georgopoulos, MD

American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine’s (AOSSM) Annual Meeting, 2012
Biomechanical Analysis of Femoral Suspensory Fixation Devices: A Practical Comparison
Jeffrey Brunelli, MD; Todd Baldini, MS; Lucas Rylander, MD; Byron Ellis, BS; Michal Taylor, MD; Monica Hawkins, PhD; Eric McCarty, MD

Western Orthopaedic Association Annual Meeting, 2010
Distal Humerus Fracture Fixation – Are Precontoured Locking Plates Biomechanically Superior to Conventional Reconstruction Plates?
Sanford and Darlene Anzel Award winner Koonce, R.; Baldini, T.; Carson, J.H.; Morgan, S.

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2010

Patellofemoral Joint Contact Area During Quadriceps Loading in Intact, ACL Deficient and Implanted Knees
Holz, T.N.; Baldini, T.H.; Dayton, M.; Bach, J.M.

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2009

Comparison of Locked and Non-Locked Plate Fixation in Osteoporotic and Normal Bone
Baldini, T; DiMatteo, L; Morgan, S; Williams, A; Phillips, G; Bach, J

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2009

Difference between the Transepicondylar Line and Cylindrical Axis of the Knee Relative to the Femoral and Tibial Mechanical Axes
Winston, Mark; Hancock, Clifton; Bach, Joel; Davidson, Bradley; Baldini, Todd; Eckhoff, Donald

Orthopaedic Trauma Association Annual Meeting, 2007

A Biomechanical Comparison of the Stresses Generated During Insertion of an Antegrade Femoral Nail Using Two Different Insertion Points
Murken, R., Steven J Morgan, J.S., H Baldini, T.B., Williams, A., Smith, W., Bach, J.

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2007

Accuracy of Image Based Computer Assisted Surgery in Acetabular Cup Placement for Supine Two Incision Total Hip Arthroplasty
Mejia H, Dayton MR, Baldini T, Peacher G, Williams A, Borchard K, Bach JM

37th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Hand Surgery, 2007
BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT VOLAR FRACTURE FIXATION PLATES FOR DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES
Sobky, K., Baldini, T., Thomas, K., Bach, J, Wolf, J.

6th Biennial ISAKOS Congress, 2007
How Many Anchors are Necessary for Adequate Fixation of Simple Type II SLAP Lesions
McCarty EC, Snyder RL, Gines JL, Baldini TH, Bach JM

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2006
Functional Flexion Axis of the Knee in 3-D Space
DiMatteo, L., Hogan, C., Eckhoff, D., Doucette, T., Rubinstein, D., Baldini, T., Bach, J.

The America Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, 2006
The Effect of Screw Insertion Angle On Pullout Strength In A Locked Plate Model
Alberts, M., Morgan, S., Baldini, T., Repine, M., Bach, J.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, 2006
3-D Morphology and Mechanics of the Knee Referenced in Computer-Assisted surgical Navigation

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, 2005
3-D Mechanics, Kinematics, and Morphology of the Knee Viewed in Virtual Reality
Eckhoff, D., Bagur, M., Flannery, N., Baldini, T., Reinig, K., Bach, J.

Orthopaedic Research Society’s Annual Meeting, 2004

Cylindrical Model for the Flexion-Extension (FE) Axis of the Knee

Orthopaedic Trauma Association’s 19th Annual Meeting, 2003
The Effect of Screw Insertion Angles on Pullout, Torsion, and Cantilever Bending Strength with an Internal Fixator with Locked Unicortical Screws
Repine, M., Morgan, S., Baldini, T., Bach, J.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting 2003, Scientific Exhibit

Three-Dimensional Morphology of the Distal Part of the Femur Viewed in Virtual Reality
Eckhoff, D., Bach, J., Spitzer, V., DiMatteo, L., Baldini, T., Flannery, N., Bagur, M., Reinig, K.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting 2002, Scientific Exhibit
Three-Dimensional Morphology of the Distal Part of the Femur Viewed in Virtual Reality
Eckhoff, D., Bach, J., Spitzer, V., Baldini, T., Reinig, K.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting 2002
Biomechanical Assessment of Conventional Unit Rod Fixation versus a Unit Rod/Pedicle Screw Construct: A Human Cadaver Study
Erickson, M., Oliver, T., Baldini, T., Bach, J.​​