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Our mission is to provide outstanding, cutting-edge clinical care, research, and state-of-the-art training in Otolaryngology

Department of Otolaryngology
 

Vijay R. Ramakrishnan, MD

Associate Professor


Clinical Office:

1635 N. Aurora Court, 6th Floor
Aurora, CO 80045

Appointments:  720-848-2820
 
Academic Office:

12631 E. 17th Avenue, B205
Aurora, CO 80045

Phone: 303-724-1965
Fax: 303-724-1961
Email: Vijay.Ramakrishnan@ucdenver.edu

 
Hospital Affiliations:
  • University of Colorado Hospital
  • National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado
  • Children's Hospital Colorado
  • Denver Veteran's Administration Medical Center
  • Denver Health Medical Center
 
Clinical Interests:
  • Rhinology, and Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery
  • Subspecialty Training: Rhinology and Skull Base Surgery

 

Medical School

(2000-2004) MD, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

Residency

(2004-2005) Internship, General Surgery, University of Colorado, Denver, CO

(2005-2009) Resident, Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, University of Colorado, Denver, CO

Fellowship

(2009-2010) Fellow, Rhinology and Skull Base Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

(2009-2010) Clinical Instructor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

(2010) Board Certification, American Board of Otolaryngology

Undergraduate Awards

UT Austin College Scholar; Graduated with Highest Honors; Phi Beta Kappa

Medical School Awards

Annual Merit Scholarship; Graduated with High Honors; Alpha Omega Alpha

Postgraduate Awards

Fellow of the American Rhinologic Society

AAFPRS Leslie Berstein Investigator Development Award

American Rhinologic Society Basic Science Research Award-2014

ERS-ARS Research International Travel Award-2014

Univ of Colorado ENT Research Day Outstanding Resident Research Presentation (2013-2nd place, 2013-honorable mention, 2012-2nd place)

American Rhinologic Scoiety Fall Film FESStival Finalist-2014 

Peer-reviewed Articles:

Ramakrishnan VR, Hauser LJ, Frank DN. Sinus Bacterial Microbiome in Health and Disease. Curr Opin Otol 2016, in press.

Lee JT, Frank DN, Ramakrishnan VR. Sinus Microbiome. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2015, in press.

McConnell B, Said MS, Ramakrishnan VR. Nasal septal perforation associated with pyoderma gangrenosum. Allergy Rhinol. 2015 Jan;6(2):122-4.

Bleier BS, et al. Endoscopic Endonasal Orbital Cavernous Hemangioma Resection: Global Experience in Techniques and Outcomes. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, accepted for publication.

Frank DN and Ramakrishnan VR. Impact of cigarette smoking on the middle meatus microbiome in health and chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, in press.

Hauser LJ, Ir D, Kingdom TT, Robertson CE, Frank DN, Ramakrishnan VR. Investigation of bacterial repopulation after sinus surgery and perioperative antibiotics. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, in press.

Ramakrishnan VR and Kingdom TT. Does Image-Guided Surgery Reduce Complication? Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2015 Jun 26 epub ahead of print.

Ramakrishnan VR, Hauser LJ, Feazel LM, Ir D, Robertson CE, Frank DN. Sinus microbiota varies among chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes and predicts surgical outcome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015; epub ahead of print.

Gitmer S, Ramakrishnan VR (corresponding author), Malcolm KC, Kofonow JM, Ir D, Frank DN. Initial investigation of small colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2015;29(1):29-34.

Deconde AS, Suh JD, Ramakrishnan VR. Treatment of CSF Rhinorrhea. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015;23(1):59-64.

Suh JD, Ramakrishnan VR, Thompson CF, et al. Inverted papilloma of the sphenoid sinus: Risk factors for disease recurrence. Laryngoscope 2015;125(3):544-8.

Hauser LJ, Feazel LM, Ir D, Fang R, Wagner BD, Robertson CE, Frank DN, Ramakrishnan VR. Sinus culture poorly predicts resident microbiota. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2015;5(1):3-9.

Ferril GR, Nick JA, Getz AE, Barham HP, Saavedra MT, Taylor-Cousar JL, Nichols DP, Curran-Everett D, Kingdom TT, Ramakrishnan VR. Comparison of radiographic and clinical characteristics of low-risk and high risk CF genotypes. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2014;4(11):915-920.

Hauser LJ, Chiang T, Ramakrishnan VR, Lovell MA, Kelley PE. Parapharyngeal and skull base yolk sac tumor: Case report with lessons in diagnosis and management. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014;78(11):203-6.

Cooper SE, Durairaj VD, Ramakrishnan VR. Infectious complication following midface reconstruction with calcified triglyceride. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Jun 4, epub ahead of print.

Ung TH, Waziri AE, Ramakrishnan VR. Preoperative ethmoid artery ligation facilities resection of large sub-frontal meningiomas. Am J Otolarynol 2014; 35(3):424-6.

Ramakrishnan VR. Editorial: Insights into disease pathogenesis and novel therapeutics. Am J Rhinol Allergy; 2014;28(2):93-4.

Barham HP, Gould EA, Ramakrishnan VR. Swing technique for middle turbinate preservation in expanded endonasal skull base approaches. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2014;4(7):583-6.

Wei LA, Ramey NA, Durairaj VD, Ramakrishnan VR, Cruz AV, Dolman PJ, Lucarelli MJ. Orbital osteoma: clinical features and management options. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;30(2):168-74.

Fountain CR, Mudd PA, Ramakrishnan VR, Sillau SH, Kingdom TT, Katial RK. Characterization and treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013;111(5):337-41.

Ramakrishnan VR, Feazel LM, Gitomer SA, Ir D, Robertson CE, Frank DN. The microbiome of the middle meatus in healthy adults. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 30;8(12):e85507.

Suh JD, Thompson CF, Scawn RL, Feinstein A, Hwang C, Goldberg RA, Rootman DB, Barham HP, Kingdom TT, Ramakrishnan VR. Radiographic analysis of the medial rectus inpatients with and without Graves' disease. Laryngoscope 2015, accepted for publication.

Beckmann N, Ponnappan A, Campana J, Ramakrishnan VR. Posterior septal resection: a simple surgical option for management of nasal septal perforation. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014;140(2):150-4.

Miller C, Suh JD, Henriquez OA, Schlosser RJ, Ramakrishnan VR, Chiu AG. Prognosis for sixth nerve palsy arising from paranasal sinus disease. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013;27:432-5.

Edward JA, Sanyal M, Ramakrishnan VR, Le Wei, Nguyen AL, Kingdom TT, Hwang PH, Nayak JV. Systemic prednisone adminstration selectively alters granulocyte subsets in nasal polyps from aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease and chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2013; Doi:10.1002/alr.21221 epub ahead of print.

Ramakrishnan VR, Ferril GR, Suh JD, Woodson T, Green TJ, Kingdom TT. Upper and lower airways associations in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and bronchiectasis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2013. Doi:10.1002/alr.21204 epub ahead of print.

Barham HP, Said S, Ramakrishnan VR. Colliding tumor of the paranasal sinus. Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2013; 4(1):e13-6. Doi:10.2500/ar.2013.4.0040.

Ramakrishnan VR, Lee JY, O'Malley BW Jr, Palmer JN, Chiu AG. 18FDG-PET in the initial staging of sinonasal malignancy. Laryngoscope 2013. Doi:10.1002/lary.24317 epub ahead of print.

Ramakrishnan VR, Suh JD, Lee JY, O'Malley BW Jr, Grady MS, Palmer JN. Sphenoid sinus anatomy and suprasellar extension of pituitary tumors. J Neurosurg 2013;119(3):669-74.

Ramakrishnan VR and Montero PN. Ergonomic considerations in ESS: Lessons learned from laparoscopic surgeons. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013;27(3):245-50.

Barham HP, Cooper SE, Tizzano M, Kingdom TT, Finger TE, Kinnamon SC, Ramakrishnan VR. Solitary chemosensory cells and bitter taste receptor signaling in human sinonasal mucosa. Int Forum Allergy Rhinology 2013;3(6):450-7.

Harasaki Y, Pettijohn KJ, Waziri A Ramakrishnan VR. Frontoethmoid osteoma with pneumocephalus: Case Report, review of the literature, and considerations for sugerical management. J Craniofac Surg 2013;24(3):953-6.

Ramakrishnan JB, Kingdom TT, Ramakrishnan VR. Allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis – Their impact on lower airways. Immunol Clin N Am 2013;3(1):45-60.

Barham HP, Cooper SE, Anderson CB, Tizzano M, Kingdom TT, Finger TE, Kinnamon SC, Ramakrishnan VR. Solitary chemosensory cells and bitter taste receptor signaling in human sinonasal mucosa. Int Forum Allergy Rhinology 12 Feb 2013 doi:10.1002/alr.21149 epub ahead of print.

Harasaki Y, Pettijohn KJ, Waziri A, Ramakrishnan VR. Frontoethmoid osteoma with pneumocephalus: Case report, review of the literature, and considerations for surgical management. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 2013 (accepted for publication).

Ramakrishnan VR and Montero PN. Ergonomic considerations in ESS: Lessons learned from laparoscopic surgeons. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013 (accepted for publication).

Suh JD, Ramakrishnan VR, Chiu AG. Outcomes and Complications of Endoscopic Approaches for Malignancies of the Paranasal Sinuses and Anterior Skull Base. Annals Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2012 (accepted for publication).

Suh JD, Ramakrishnan VR, Chiu AG, Palmer JN. Silent sinus syndrome. ENT Journal 2012;91(12):E19.

Scapa V, Ramakrishnan VR, Kingdom TT. Upregulation of Bcl-2 in nasal polyps of patients with cystic fibrosis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinology 2012 Nov 7 doi:10.1002/alr.21107 epub ahead of print.

Ramakrishnan VR, Feazel LM, Abrass LA, Frank DN. Prevalence and abundance of Staphylococcus aureus in the middle meatus of chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma. Int Forum Allergy Rhinology 2012 Oct 10 doi: 10.1002/alr.21101 epub ahead of print.

Ramakrishnan VR, Orlandi RR, Citardi MJ, Smith TL, Fried MP, Kingdom TT. The use of image-guided surgery in endoscopic sinus surgery: an evidence-based review with recommendations. Int Forum Allergy Rhinology 2012 Oct 8 doi:10.1002/alr.21094 epub ahead of print.

Lee JYK, Ramakrishnan VR, Chiu AG, Palmer JN, Gausas RE. Endoscopic endonasal surgical resection of tumors of the medial orbital apex and wall. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2012;114(1):93-8.

Ramakrishnan VR, Cooper S. Pharmacotherapy for Nonallergic Rhinitis. eMedicine from WebMD. Updated July 11, 2012. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/874171-overview.

DeConde A, Ramakrishnan VR, Suh JD. The nasal floor graft for skull base reconstruction. Annals Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2012;121(2):91-5.

Feazel L, Robertson C, Ramakrishnan VR, Frank DN. Staphylococcus Aureus and microbiome diversity in chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2012;122(2):467-72.

Ramakrishnan VR, Kingdom TK, Hwang PH, Nayak J, Orlandi RR. Nationwide incidence of major complications in endoscopic sinus surgery. Int Forum Allergy and Rhinology 2012;2(1):34-9.

Suh JD, Ramakrishnan V, Chiu AG. The role of topical therapies in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2011;77(6):680-1.

Weitzel NS, Puskas F, Weyant M, Ramakrishnan V. Laryngotracheal stenosis: clinical manifestations and management. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2011;15(4):169-75.

Suh JD, Ramakrishnan VR, Tajudeen B, Reger C, Kennedy DW, Chiu AG. Identification and treatment of nontuberculous Mycobacterium sinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy 2011;25(6):421-4.

Mudd PA, Katial RK, Alam R, Hohensee S, Ramakrishnan V, Kingdom TT. Variations in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in nasal mucosa of aspirin-sensitive versus aspirin-tolerant patients with nasal polyposis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2011;107(4):353-9.

Suh JD, Ramakrishnan VR, Zhang PJ, Wu AW, Wang MB, Palmer JN, Chiu AG. Diagnosis and Endoscopic Management of Sinonasal Schwannomas. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2011;73(6):308-312.

Ramakrishnan VR and Suh JD. How necessary are postoperative debridements after sinus surgery? Laryngoscope 2011;121(1):8-9.

Ramakrishnan VR, Suh JD, Chiu AG, and Palmer JN. The utility of a minimally invasive medial orbital approach in advanced endoscopic sinoorbital surgery. Laryngoscope 2011;121(2):437-41.

Scapa VI, Ramakrishnan VR, Mudd PA, Kingdom TT. Upregulation of RANTES in nasal polyps from patients with cystic fibrosis. Int Forum Allergy and Rhinology 2011;1(3):157-60.

Ramakrishnan VR and Kennedy DK. Advances in the surgical management of chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2011;11(3):220-9.

Ramakrishnan VR, Suh JD, Chiu AG, and Palmer JN. The reliability of preoperative CSF pressure measurement in spontaneous CSF leaks and encephaloceles. Int Forum Allergy and Rhinology 2011;1(3):201-5.

Ramakrishnan VR, Suh JD, Chiu AG, and Palmer JN. Septal dislocation for access of the anterolateral maxillary sinus and infratemporal fossa. Am Journal Rhinol Allergy 2011;25(2):128-130.

Ramakrishnan VR, Suh JD, and Kennedy DK. The ethmoid skull base: a revised clinically relevant classification scheme. Int Forum Allergy and Rhinology 2011;1(5): 396-400.

Feazel L, Frank DN, Ramakrishnan VR. Update on Bacterial Detection Methods: Implications for clinicians and researchers. Int Forum Allergy and Rhinology 2011;1(6):451-9.

Ramakrishnan VR, Durairaj VD, Kingdom TT. Endoscopic Management of Acquired Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Secondary to Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Thyroid Malignancy. J Aller Ther 2:110. doi:10.4172/2155- 6121.1000110.

Suh JD, Ramakrishnan V, Palmer JN. Biofilms. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2010 Jun;43(3):521-30.

Ramakrishnan VR, Palmer JN. Prevention and Management of Orbital Hematoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2010 Aug;43(4):789-800.

Ramakrishnan VR, Said S, Kingdom TT. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Sphenoid Sinus. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009;135(9):949-52.

Ramakrishnan VR, Yao W, Campana J. Skin paddle survival using pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction of head and neck defects. Archives Facial Plast Surg 2009;11(5):306-310.

Ramakrishnan VR, Hink EM, Durairaj VD, Kingdom TT. Outcomes after endoscopic DCR without mucosal flap preservation. Am J Rhinol 2007;21(6):753-757.

Ramakrishnan VR, Durairaj VD, Kingdom TT. Principles of endoscopic revision dacryocystorhinostomy. Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology 2008;19(3):177-181.

Singh B, Berry JA, Shoher A, Ramakrishnan V, Lucci A. COX-2 overexpression increases motility and invasion of breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol 2005;26(5):1393-9.

Ramakrishnan V, Shoher A, Ehrlich M, Powell S, Lucci A Jr. Atypical dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in the breast. Breast J 2005;11(3):217-8.

Book Chapters:

Chan KH, Ramakrishnan VR. Diseases of the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, and Nasopharynx. Chapter in: Ballenger's Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 17th edition; Editors Snow, Wackym. Hamilton, Ontario:BC Decker Publisher, 2009.

Feazel LM, Ramakrishnan VR and Kingdom TK. Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Chapter in: Encyclopedia of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Editor Kountakis. Springer Publishers, 2011.

Kennedy DW and Ramakrishnan VR. Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Concepts, Surgical Indications, and Techniques. Chapter in: Rhinology: Diseases of the Nose, Sinuses and Skull Base, pp306-335; Editors Kennedy and Hwang. Thieme, 2012.

Ramakrishnan VR and Kingdom TT. Surgical Instruments in Revision Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. Chapter in: Revision Sinus Surgery; Editors Kountakis, Jacobs, Gosepath. Springer publications, 2008.

Ramakrishnan VR and Palmer JN. Endoscopic Management of Sino-Orbital Disease. Chapter in: Practical Rhinology; Editors Simmen and Jones; Oxford University Press, 2011.

Ramakrishnan VR and Palmer JN. Postoperative Care in Sinus Surgery. Chapter in: Practical Rhinology; Editors Simmen and Jones; Oxford University Press, 2011.

Ramakrishnan VR. Endoscopic Approaches to Sinus Tumors. Chapter in: Sinonasal Tumors, Editors Chiu, Suh, and Ramakrishnan. Jaypee Publishers, 2011.

Ramakrishnan VR and Kennedy DW. Perioperative Considerations in Sinus Tumor Surgery. Chapter in: Sinonasal Tumors, Editors Chiu, Suh, and Ramakrishnan. Jaypee Publishers, 2011.

Ramakrishnan VR and Suh JD. Malignant Tumors of the Paranasal Sinuses. Chapter in: Sinonasal Tumors, Editors Chiu, Suh, and Ramakrishnan. Jaypee Publishers , 2011.

Ramakrishnan VR and Waziri A. Postoperative Care in Skull Base Surgery. Chapter in: Comprehensive techniques in CSF leak repair and skull base reconstruction; Editor: Bleier. Karger Publishers, 2012.

Ramakrishnan VR. Extended Frontal Sinus Surgery. Chapter in: Atlas of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Editors Chiu and Palmer. Elsevier Publishers , 2013.

Ramakrishnan VR and Kingdom TT. Optic Nerve Decompression. Chapter in: Atlas of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Editors Chiu and Palmer. Elsevier Publishers, 2013.

Ramakrishnan VR and Kingdom TT. Chapter in: Office based rhinology, Editors Delgaudio, Wise, and Patel. Plural Publishing, 2013.

Suh JD and Ramakrishnan VR. Endoscopic Craniofacial Resection. Chapter in: Atlas of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Editors Chiu and Palmer. Elsevier Publishers, 2013.

Ramakrishnan VR and Kingdom TT. Chronic Rhinosinusitis, Nasal Polyps, and Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease. Textbook of Allergy for the Clinician. Taylor and Francis Publishers 2014.

Ramakrishnan VR, Kingdom TT, and Orlandi RR. Role of structural anomalies in the nose and sinuses of patients with rhinosinusitis. Chapter in: Diseases of the sinuses, 2nd ed. Editors Chang, Incaudo, Gershwin. Springer Science US 2104.

Books:

Sinonasal Tumors. Eds: Chiu, Suh, Ramakrishnan. Jaypee Publishers 2012.

ENT Secrets, 4th edition. Eds: Scholes and Ramakrishnan. Elsevier, August 2015.

Research Interests:

  • Sinus microbiome in health and science

  • Nasal chemosensory mechanisms

  • Inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps

  • Minimally-invasive surgical techniques for sinus, orbit, and skull base suregery

  • Novel techniques for reconstruction of skull base defects

  • Innovative approaches to minimally invasive orbital surgery

American Rhinologic Society
American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy
American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery